Objective—To determine clinical signs, diagnostic methods, treatment, and outcome for a series of adult horses with abdominal abscesses.
Design—Retrospective case series.
Animals—61 adult horses.
Procedures—Medical records of adult horses with abdominal abscesses treated at Texas A&M Veterinary Medical Teaching Hospital (1993 to 2008) were reviewed. Information was recorded regarding signalment, history, clinical signs, diagnosis, treatment, and short- and long-term outcomes. Risk factors for survival were determined.
Results—61 horses met the criteria for inclusion. Clinical signs included colic (67%), fever (46%), anorexia (51%), signs of depression (57%), tachycardia (46%), and weight loss (30%). The diagnosis was made on the basis of abdominal ultrasonography, exploratory celiotomy, palpation per rectum, and necropsy. Abscesses were variable in size, location, and number. Only 15 (24.6%) horses survived to discharge. Multiple bacterial isolates were identified from aspirates of abscesses, and subsequent abdominal adhesion formation limited survival, affecting outcome. Risk factors for survival included age and heart rate at admission.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Adult horses with abdominal abscesses often have severe adhesion formation. Multiple bacterial isolates are frequently identified from the abscess. Prognosis for survival is guarded.
Case Description—6 mares with pyometra secondary to transluminal cervical adhesions were examined.
Clinical Findings—Reasons for hospital admission included infertility (5 mares) and acute colic (1 mare). In the 6 mares, palpation per rectum of the reproductive tract revealed uterine distention, and transrectal ultrasonography confirmed the presence of echogenic fluid accumulation within the uterus. Cervical palpation during vaginal speculum examination indicated transluminal cervical adhesions. Three mares had severe distortion of the cervix as a result of diverticula and fibrosis. All 6 mares had a diagnosis of pyometra secondary to transluminal cervical adhesions.
Treatment and Outcome—Initially, the cervical adhesions were manually broken down to establish a patent cervical lumen to accommodate a uterine lavage catheter. A sample of the uterine content was obtained for bacteriologic culture and antimicrobial susceptibility testing, and the uterus was lavaged with 0.05% povidone-iodine solution to remove the mucopurulent exudate. Once the uterus was evacuated, cervical surgery was performed in standing mares following sedation and caudal epidural anesthesia. A full-thickness wedge-shaped defect was made in the dorsolateral aspect of the cervix that created a permanent opening to the uterus. Postoperative care included applying topical medication to the cervix to reduce the recurrence of adhesion formation. All 6 mares had patent cervices and resolution of pyometra following surgery.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Cervical wedge resection enabled treatment of pyometra in mares with transluminal cervical adhesions, without the need for ovariohysterectomy. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2015;246:1354–1357)
Objective—To determine the pharmacokinetics of gallium maltolate (GaM) after intragastric administration in adult horses.
Animals—6 adult horses.
Procedures—Feed was withheld for 12 hours prior to intragastric administration of GaM (20 mg/kg). A single dose of GaM was administered to each horse via a nasogastric tube (time 0). Blood samples were collected at various time points from 0 to 120 hours. Serum was used to determine gallium concentrations by use of inductively coupled plasma-mass spectroscopy. Noncompartmental and compartmental analyses of serum gallium concentrations were performed. Pharmacokinetic models were selected on the basis of the Akaike information criterion and visual analysis of plots of residuals.
Results—Serum concentration data for 1 horse were such that this horse was considered an outlier and excluded from noncompartmental and compartmental analyses. Noncompartmental analysis was used to determine individual pharmacokinetic parameters. A 1-compartment model with first-order input and output and lag time was selected as the best-fit model for the data and used to determine mean — SD values for maximum observed serum concentration (0.28 — 0.09 μg/mL), time of maximum concentration (3.09 — 0.43 hours), time to the first measurable concentration (0.26 — 0.11 hours), apparent elimination half-life (48.82 — 5.63 hours), area under the time-concentration curve (20.68 — 757 h—μg/mL), and apparent volume of distribution (73,493 — 18,899 mL/kg).
Conclusion and Clinical Relevance—Further studies are necessary to determine the bioavailability of GaM after intragastric administration in adult horses.
Objective—To determine the effects of prostaglandin
E2 (PGE2) on recombinant equine interleukin (IL)-1β-stimulated expression of matrix metalloproteinases
(MMP 1, MMP 3, MMP 13) and tissue inhibitor of
matrix metalloproteinase 1 (TIMP 1) in vitro.
Sample Population—Cultured equine chondrocytes.
Procedure—Stationary monolayers of first-passage
chondrocytes were exposed to graduated concentrations
of PGE2 with or without a subsaturating dose
(50 pg/ml) of recombinant equine IL-1β (reIL-1β) to
induce expression of MMP 1, MMP 3, MMP 13, and
TIMP 1, followed by RNA isolation and northern blotting.
In subsequent experiments, gene expression
was similarly quantified from mRNA isolated from cultures
pretreated with phenylbutazone to quench
endogenous PGE2 synthesis, followed by exposure to
reIL-1β and exogenous PGE2 (5 mg/ml) with appropriate
Results—Exogenous PGE2 (10 mg/ml) significantly
reduced reIL-1β-induced expression of MMP 1,
MMP 3, MMP 13, and TIMP 1. Abrogation of
cytokine induction with this dose of PGE2 was comparable
to that for dexamethasone (10–5M) control.
Similarly, pretreatment with phenylbutazone, followed
by exposure to reIL-1β and PGE2 (5 mg/ml),
was associated with a reduced expression of the
genes of interest, an effect that was significant for
MMP 1, MMP 13, and TIMP 1.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—The MMP
and TIMP 1 are important mediators in the pathophysiologic
events in osteoarthritis. The potential for
physiologically relevant regulation of expression of
these genes by PGE2 is a consideration in the use of
drugs that inhibit prostanoid synthesis in the treatment
of equine arthropathies. (Am J Vet Res
Case Description—6 geldings and 5 stallions were evaluated from January 2007 through April 2009 for the following conditions requiring phallectomy: chronic paraphimosis (n = 7), squamous cell carcinoma of the penis (3), and priapism (1).
Clinical Findings—None of the 7 horses with paraphimosis was able to retract the penis. Chronicity of the paraphimosis in 6 horses ranged from 2 weeks to 2 months and was unknown in the seventh horse. Horses with paraphimosis had been medically treated without success. The horse with priapism had developed the condition secondary to acepromazine administration 2 days prior to referral and was unsuccessfully treated once by intracavernosal administration of phenylephrine and irrigation of the cavernosal tissues prior to surgery. The 3 horses with squamous cell carcinoma of the penis had had the condition for 2 years and had been treated by repeated application of a cryogen or chemotherapeutic agent to the lesions.
Treatment and Outcome—All 11 horses underwent a partial phallectomy by means of a modified Vinsot technique. Modifications to the original technique included creation of a linear urethrostomy, alteration of the location and shape of the urethrostomy, application of a latex tourniquet, concurrent castration of stallions, and use of the procedure in standing horses. The procedure was technically easy to perform, well tolerated by the horses, and cosmetically acceptable to the owners, and had minimal postoperative complications. Long-term follow-up information was obtained from owners of 10 horses a median of 454 days after surgery; 2 owners reported mild urine scalding as the only adverse effect.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—The modified Vinsot technique of partial phallectomy was effective and may be useful for horses that are unsuitable candidates for general anesthesia because of medical or owner financial constraints.
Objective—To determine signalment, physical examination and clinicopathologic abnormalities, outcome, and subsequent fertility of mares with periparturient hemorrhage (PPH) and identify factors associated with outcome (ie, survival vs death).
Design—Retrospective case series.
Procedures—Medical records were reviewed for information on age, breed, initial complaint, physical examination and clinicopathologic abnormalities, treatment, outcome, and subsequent fertility.
Results—Median age was 14.0 years (range, 5 to 24 years), and median number of foals produced prior to the diagnosis of PPH was 8 (range, 1 to 16). Ten (14%) mares had prepartum hemorrhage and 63 (86%) had postpartum hemorrhage. Treatment was aimed at restoring cardiovascular volume, enhancing coagulation, controlling pain, and reducing the effects of endotoxemia. Sixty-one (84%) mares survived and 12 (16%) died or were euthanized. Common complications included fever, leukopenia, retained fetal membranes, increased digital pulses, thrombophlebitis, and cardiac arrhythmias. Of the 53 surviving mares for which subsequent breeding information was available, 26 (49%) produced 1 or more foals after recovering from PPH.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggested that PPH can develop in mares of any age and parity. Treatment was associated with a good prognosis for survival and a reasonable prognosis for future fertility.
OBJECTIVE To describe the signalment, clinical features, and outcome for male horses with urethral rents following perineal urethrotomy (PU) or corpus spongiotomy (CS).
DESIGN Retrospective case series.
ANIMALS 33 horses.
PROCEDURES Medical records of male horses examined because of hematuria or hemospermia caused by urethral rents that underwent PU or CS at a referral hospital between 1989 and 2013 were reviewed. Data regarding signalment, clinical features, urethroscopic findings, surgical treatment, and outcome were recorded. Long-term follow-up information was obtained by telephone interviews.
RESULTS Age of the study population ranged from 3 to 18 years. Nineteen geldings and 1 stallion were examined because of hematuria, of which 13 and 7 underwent PU and CS, respectively, at a mean of 56 days after onset of clinical signs. Thirteen stallions were examined because of hemospermia, of which 7 and 6 underwent PU and CS, respectively, at a mean of 193 days after onset of clinical signs. Hematuria resolved following 1 surgical procedure in all 17 horses for which long-term information was available. Of the 12 stallions for which long-term information was available, 7 had resolution of hemospermia after 1 PU or CS and 5 developed recurrent hemospermia that required additional PUs or CSs (n = 3) or primary closure of the urethral rent (2).
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results indicated that PU and CS were reliable treatments for resolution of hematuria in male horses with urethral rents; stallions with urethral rents may require multiple PUs or CSs or primary closure of the rent for resolution of hemospermia.