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  • Author or Editor: Caroline S. Mansfield x
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Objective—To determine whether dilution of blood samples from healthy dogs with 2 hydroxyethyl starch (HES) solutions, HES 130/0.4 and HES 200/0.5, would result in platelet dysfunction as measured by closure time (Ct) beyond a dilutional effect.

Sample—Citrated blood samples from 10 healthy dogs with a Ct within reference limits (52 to 86 seconds).

Procedures—Blood samples were diluted 1:9 and 1:3 with 6% HES 130/0.4 and 10% HES 200/0.5 solutions and saline (0.9% NaCl) solution. Dilutions at 1:9 and 1:3 mimicked 10 mL/kg and 30 mL/kg doses, respectively, ignoring in vivo redistribution. Closure time was measured with a platelet function analyzer and compared among dilutions.

Results—A dilutional effect on Ct was evident for the 1:3 dilution, compared with the 1:9 dilution, but only HES 200/0.5 increased the Ct beyond the dilutional effect at the 1:3 dilution, to a median Ct of 125 seconds (interquartile range, 117.5 to 139.5 seconds). No effect of HES or dilution on Ct was identified at the 1:9 dilution.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—1:3 dilution of blood samples from healthy dogs with HES 200/0.5 but not HES 130/0.4 significantly increased Ct beyond the dilutional effect, suggesting that IV administration of HES 200/0.5 in dogs might cause platelet dysfunction.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research


Objective—To establish a clinical severity index that correlates severity of body system abnormalities with outcome in dogs with acute pancreatitis (AP) and determine the usefulness of serum C-reactive protein (C-RP) concentration as an objective measure of AP severity.

Design—Retrospective cohort study.

Animals—61 client-owned dogs with ultrasonographically or histologically confirmed AP.

Procedures—Medical records of AP-affected dogs were reviewed, and signalment, physical examination findings, clinicopathologic data, and outcome (death or discharge from the hospital) were evaluated. The correlation of specific abnormalities in endocrine, hepatic, renal, hematopoietic, cardiovascular, and respiratory systems; local pancreatic complications; and intestinal integrity were evaluated, and a clinical severity index was developed for AP in dogs. The severity index score was compared with outcome and, for 12 dogs, with serum C-RP concentration.

Results—The clinical severity index had a good correlation with outcome and interval from hospital admission until end point (days until outcome), but there was no difference in days until outcome between survivors and nonsurvivors. All 12 dogs evaluated had high serum C-RP concentration, but this variable was not related to outcome; however, within a 2-day period after onset of clinical signs, serum C-RP concentration in survivors and nonsurvivors differed significantly.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Among AP-affected dogs, the clinical severity index may be useful for treatment comparisons and prediction of intensive management requirements. Serum C-RP concentration was best related to AP severity within a 2-day period after onset of clinical signs, but daily measurement may be more useful for monitoring progress.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association


Objective—To determine the effect of Hct on blood glucose readings of dogs obtained by use of 2 point-of-care (POC) blood glucometers and a laboratory analyzer.

Animals—184 dogs, including 139 Greyhounds.

Procedures—Venous blood samples collected from 184 dogs with a range of Hcts (measured in EDTA-anticoagulated blood) were immediately analyzed with a handheld glucometer specifically developed for veterinary use and a glucometer developed for use in humans. The remainder of each blood sample was placed in fluoride oxalate tubes, and plasma glucose concentration was measured with a laboratory analyzer. Agreement between results for the POC glucometers and laboratory analyzer and effect of Hct on glucometer accuracy was assessed via regression analysis.

Results—Significant differences were detected between results of the glucometers and the reference laboratory analyzer. The Hct affected the correlation between results for the glucometers and the laboratory analyzer. Deviations of the glucometers from the reference interval varied with Hct. The glucometer for veterinary use more closely correlated with the glucose concentration when Hct was within or above its reference interval. The glucometer for use in humans more closely approximated laboratory reference glucose concentrations in anemic dogs.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Hct had a relevant impact on the correlation between whole blood and plasma glucose concentrations in dogs. Significant variations between results obtained with the 2 glucometers could be critical when interpreting blood glucose measurements or selecting a POC glucometer for an intensive care setting and precise glycemic control in critically ill dogs.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research


Objective—To indirectly assess the pancreatic response in healthy dogs that were fed diets of different fat compositions with or without supplemental pancreatic enzymes and medium-chain triglycerides (MCTs).

Animals—10 healthy adult dogs.

Procedures—Dogs were fed 4 diets once in random order at 1-week intervals; food was withheld from the dogs for ≥ 12 hours prior to the feeding of each diet. Diets A and B contained 16% and 5% crude fat, respectively; diet C was composed of diet A with pancreatic enzymes; and diet D was composed of diet B with pancreatic enzymes and MCTs. Serum canine trypsin–like immunoreactivity (cTLI) and canine pancreatic lipase immunoreactivity (cPLI) concentrations were measured before (0 hours) and at 1 to 2 and 6 hours after feeding. Serum gastrin concentration was measured at 0 hours and at 5 to 10 minutes and 1 to 2 hours after feeding. A gastrin assay validation study was performed to confirm accuracy of test results in dogs. Data were analyzed by use of a repeated-measures general ANOVA.

Results—Serum cTLI, cPLI, or gastrin concentrations in the dogs did not differ among the different diets fed, among dogs, or over time. When multiple comparisons were analyzed, diet D caused the least amount of measurable pancreatic response, although this difference was not significant.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results did not indicate a significant effect of dietary fat content or addition of supplemental MCT oil or pancreatic enzymes in diets on serum cTLI, cPLI, or gastrin concentrations in healthy dogs.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research