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  • Author or Editor: Caroline F. Baldo x
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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association


Objective—To evaluate effects of commonly used anesthetics administered as single bolus injections on splenic volume.

Animals—10 adult Beagles.

Procedures—A randomized crossover study was conducted. Computed tomography was performed on dogs to determine baseline splenic volume and changes after IV injection of assigned drug treatments. Dogs were allowed to acclimate for 10 minutes in a plastic crate before acquisition of abdominal CT images. Treatments were administered at 7-day intervals and consisted of IV administration of saline (0.9% NaCl) solution (5 mL), acepromazine maleate (0.03 mg/kg), hydromorphone (0.1 mg/kg), and dexmedetomidine (0.005 mg/kg) to all 10 dogs; thiopental (8 mg/kg) to 5 of the dogs; and propofol (5 mg/kg) to the other 5 dogs. Splenic volume was calculated from the CT images with image processing software. A repeated-measures ANOVA was performed, followed by a Bonferroni post hoc test.

Results—No significant difference in splenic volume was detected between the acepromazine, propofol, and thiopental treatments, but splenic volume was greater with these drugs than with saline solution, hydromorphone, and dexmedetomidine. Splenic volume was less with hydromorphone, compared with dexmedetomidine, but splenic volume with hydromorphone and dexmedetomidine did not differ significantly from that with saline solution.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Administration of acepromazine, thiopental, and propofol resulted in splenomegaly. Dexmedetomidine did not alter splenic volume. Hydromorphone slightly decreased splenic volume. Propofol should not be used when splenomegaly is not desirable, whereas hydromorphone and dexmedetomidine may be used when it is best to avoid splenic enlargement.

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research



To determine whether previous corrective upper airway surgery in brachycephalic dogs would decrease perianesthetic complications in subsequent anesthetic events.


45 client-owned dogs.


Brachycephalic dogs undergoing any combination of staphylectomy, nasal alaplasty, or laryngeal sacculectomy that were anesthetized at a later date for additional surgical procedures or imaging from August 2, 2007, to February 8, 2019, had their medical records reviewed during both anesthetic events for signalment, American Society of Anesthesiologists status, perianesthetic drug administration, anesthetic duration, presence and total time of positive-pressure ventilation, procedure invasiveness, and perianesthetic complications such as bradycardia, hypothermia, hypotension, cardiac arrhythmias, hypertension, vomiting or regurgitation, dysphoria, respiratory distress, hypoxemia, reintubation, and prolonged periods of recovery.


The odds of having complications during the postanesthetic period following subsequent anesthetic events were decreased by 79% in dogs having previous surgical intervention to correct clinical signs of brachycephalic airway syndrome. Intra-anesthetic bradycardia increased the odds of developing a postanesthetic complication by 4.56 times. Every 15-minute increase in anesthetic duration increased the odds of having a postanesthetic complication by 12% and having an intra-anesthetic complication by 11%.


Previous corrective upper airway surgery decreased odds of postanesthetic complications in brachycephalic dogs that underwent subsequent anesthetic events. Findings in this study indicated that corrective upper airway surgery for brachycephalic dogs may reduce postanesthetic complications following subsequent anesthetic events, which may reduce perianesthetic morbidity in patients undergoing multiple surgical or diagnostic imaging procedures.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association