Objective—To assess and compare the expression of perinuclear antineutrophilic cytoplasmic antibodies (pANCA) in sera obtained from dogs with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and dogs with intestinal lymphoma.
Animals—104 dogs with IBD and 23 dogs with intestinal lymphoma.
Procedures—Each ill dog had persistent gastrointestinal signs (> 3 weeks in duration) and absence of response to diet changes or antimicrobial treatments. Gastrointestinal endoscopy was performed in ill dogs to obtain intestinal biopsy specimens for histologic confirmation of IBD or lymphoma. A serum sample was obtained from each ill dog. Neutrophils were isolated from a blood sample from the healthy dog; neutrophil-bearing slides were incubated with serum from each ill dog and examined for expression of pANCA by use of an indirect immunofluorescence technique. Detection of cells that had a perinuclear fluorescence pattern was considered a positive result.
Results—The 2 groups of dogs did not differ with regard to breed and sex but did differ with regard to age. Expression of pANCA was detected in 38 of the 104 (36.5%) dogs with IBD and 4 of the 23 (17.4%) dogs with intestinal lymphoma. Although the frequency of pANCA expression was higher in dogs with IBD, compared with findings in dogs with intestinal lymphoma, the difference was not significant.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results indicated that circulating pANCA are present in some dogs with IBD or intestinal lymphoma. However, pANCA detection does not seem to be useful for distinguishing dogs with IBD from dogs with intestinal lymphoma.
Objective—To evaluate perinuclear anti-neutrophilic cytoplasmic autoantibody (pANCA) status in Soft Coated Wheaten Terriers (SCWTs) and SCWT-Beagle crossbred dogs and to correlate pANCA status of dogs with clinicopathologic variables of protein-losing enteropathy (PLE), protein-losing nephropathy (PLN), or both.
Animals—13 SCWTs and 8 SCWT-Beagle crossbred dogs in a research colony and a control group comprising 7 dogs with X-linked hereditary nephropathy and 12 healthy SCWTs > 9 years old.
Procedures—Samples were obtained from dogs in the research colony every 6 months. At each sample-collection time point, serum concentrations of albumin, globulin, creatinine, and urea nitrogen; fecal concentration of α-proteinase inhibitor; and urinary protein-to-creatinine ratios were determined and correlated with pANCA status.
Results—20 of 21 dogs in the research colony had positive results for pANCAs at a minimum of 2 time points, and 18 of 21 dogs had definitive evidence of disease. None of the control dogs had positive results for pANCAs. A positive result for pANCAs was significantly associated with hypoalbuminemia, and pANCAs preceded the onset of hypoalbuminemia on an average of 2.4 years. Sensitivity and specificity for use of pANCAs to predict development of PLE or PLN were 0.95 (95% confidence interval, 0.72 to 1.00) and 0.8 (95% confidence interval, 0.51 to 0.95), respectively.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Most dogs in this study affected with PLE, PLN, or both had positive results for pANCAs before clinicopathologic evidence of disease was detected. Thus, pANCAs may be useful as an early noninvasive test of disease in SCWTs.
Objective—To estimate the prevalence of perinuclear antineutrophilic cytoplasmic autoantibodies (pANCA) in the serum of healthy Soft Coated Wheaten Terriers (SCWTs) in the United Kingdom and to identify potential risk factors and heritability patterns associated with a positive result for pANCA.
Animals—188 SCWTs (age range, 18 months to 14.3 years).
Procedures—Blood samples were obtained from SCWTs in various locations in England. Serum was tested for pANCA by use of an immunofluorescence assay, and total protein and albumin concentrations were determined. Pedigrees were evaluated to identify close relatives that had protein-losing enteropathy (PLE) or protein-losing nephropathy (PLN).
Results—39 of 188 (20.7%) dogs, including young dogs, had positive results for pANCA. Dogs had significantly higher odds of having positive results for pANCA if they had at least 1 littermate that had PLE or PLN (odds ratio, 12.1) or if they had at least 1 full sibling from another litter known to be affected with PLE or PLN (odds ratio, 4.0).
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—This study revealed a high prevalence of pANCA in the serum of a representative sample of healthy SCWTs in the United Kingdom and a significant association between positive results for pANCA and a diagnosis of PLE or PLN in a sibling.