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  • Author or Editor: Carol R. Norris x
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Abstract

Objective—To determine clinical, radiographic, and pathologic features of bronchiectasis in cats.

Design—Retrospective study.

Animals—12 cats with histologic evidence of bronchiectasis.

Procedure—Information on signalment, body weight, clinical signs of respiratory disease, concurrent diseases, method by which lung tissue specimens were obtained (surgical biopsy or necropsy), and histopathologic findings was obtained by reviewing medical records from January 1987 to June 1999 for cats with confirmation of bronchiectasis by histologic examination. Available thoracic radiographs were reviewed by a board-certified radiologist.

Results—Bronchiectasis was most commonly identified in older male cats. Clinical signs referable to the lower portion of the respiratory tract were detected in only 5 cats but, when evident, were usually chronic (duration > 1 year). Radiographic pattern of bronchiectasis was cylindrical in 4 cats, and in 1 of these cats, a saccular pattern was also identified. For most cats, bronchiectasis was detected in a single lung lobe. Radiographic evidence of bronchiectasis was not detected in 2 cats. Concurrent respiratory diseases included chronic bronchitis and bronchiolitis, neoplasia, bronchopneumonia, endogenous lipid pneumonia, and emphysema.

Conclusion and Clinical Relevance—Bronchiectasis appears to be an uncommon respiratory tract disorder that predominantly affects older male cats. Thoracic radiography may not be sensitive for the diagnosis of bronchiectasis in cats. Bronchiectasis in cats appears to be a sequela of chronic inflammatory bronchopulmonary diseases, especially chronic bronchitis, neoplasia, and bronchopneumonia. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2000;216:530–534)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To determine clinical signs, physical examination findings, radiographic features, and concurrent diseases in cats with laryngeal paralysis, as well as evaluate the outcome of medical or surgical management.

Design—Retrospective study.

Animals—16 cats.

Procedure—Medical records from January 1990 to April 1999 were examined for cats with laryngeal paralysis. Signalment, clinical signs, physical examination findings, cervical and thoracic radiographic findings, laryngeal examination results, and clinical outcome were reviewed.

Results—No breed or sex predilection was identified in 16 cats with laryngeal paralysis. The most common clinical signs included tachypnea or dyspnea, dysphagia, weight loss, change in vocalization, coughing, and lethargy. Clinical signs were evident for a median of 245 days. Airway obstruction was apparent on cervical and thoracic radiographic views in 9 cats. Examination of the larynx revealed bilateral laryngeal paralysis in 12 cats and unilateral laryngeal paralysis in 4 cats. The 4 cats with unilateral disease were managed with medical treatment, and 3 of these had acceptable long-term outcomes. Seven of 12 cats with bilateral paralysis underwent surgery; procedures performed included left arytenoid tie back, bilateral arytenoid tie back and ventriculocordectomy, and partial left arytenoidectomy. One cat was euthanatized as a result of complications from surgery.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Laryngeal paralysis is an uncommon cause of airway obstruction in cats. Cats with less severe clinical signs (often with unilateral paralysis) may be successfully managed with medical treatment, whereas cats with severe airway obstruction (often with bilateral paralysis) may benefit from surgical intervention.(J Am Vet Med Assoc 2000;216:1100–1103)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To characterize interstitial lung diseases (ILDs) and evaluate use of keyhole lung biopsy for diagnosis of ILDs in dogs and cats.

Design—Retrospective study.

Animals—11 dogs and 2 cats.

Procedure—Medical records of dogs and cats undergoing keyhole lung biopsy to confirm ILDs were reviewed. Signalment, clinical signs, results of thoracic radiography and other respiratory diagnostic tests, postoperative complications, and patient outcome were analyzed.

Results—Clinical respiratory signs included cough, tachypnea, exercise intolerance, and hemoptysis. Thoracic radiographic abnormalities included interstitial, alveolar, and bronchointerstitial patterns and multiple discrete pulmonary nodules. Lung biopsy and histologic examination revealed interstitial pulmonary fibrosis, bronchiolitis obliterans with organizing pneumonia, or unclassified lesions. Outcome after biopsy included no response to treatment, euthanasia, partial or complete remission while receiving medication, and cure.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Recognition and classification of ILDs in dogs and cats are likely to be important in guiding appropriate treatment and providing accurate prognostic information. Ancillary respiratory diagnostic tests are beneficial in ruling out infectious and neoplastic disorders that may mimic ILDs; however, their present use in the diagnosis of ILDs is limited. Results suggest that keyhole lung biopsy is an effective means for obtaining a specimen for histologic diagnosis in dogs and cats with ILDs. ( J Am Vet Med Assoc 2002;221:1453–1459)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To determine clinical signs, radiographic and histologic abnormalities, and concurrent diseases in cats with endogenous lipid pneumonia (EnLP) and to determine the pathologic importance of EnLP in cats.

Design—Retrospective study.

Animals—24 cats.

Procedure—Medical records of cats in which EnLP was confirmed by histologic examination of necropsy specimens were reviewed. Information collected from the medical records included signalment, body weight, clinical signs, and results of clinicopathologic tests. Thoracic radiographs were reviewed by a radiologist; histologic specimens were reviewed by a pathologist.

Results—All cats had nonspecific clinical abnormalities, such as lethargy, anorexia, or weight loss; 16 had signs of respiratory tract disease. All cats had concurrent systemic diseases, and clinicopathologic abnormalities were reflective of these conditions. Nonspecific abnormalities were detected on thoracic radiographs from 9 of 11 cats. Most cats had macroscopic, multifocal, subpleural lesions; inflammatory infiltrates, cholesterol clefts, and multinucleated giant cells were common. Ten cats had an underlying obstructive pulmonary disease that was the likely cause of EnLP. Lesions of EnLP were not considered to be severe enough or extensive enough to be the cause of death in any of these cats.

Conclusion and Clinical Relevance—EnLP is an uncommon respiratory tract disorder of cats with no pathognomonic clinical, laboratory, or radiographic findings. Although EnLP was not the cause of death in any of these cats, results of the present study do suggest that EnLP may be a marker for potentially severe underlying obstructive pulmonary disease. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2000;216:1437–1440)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To determine clinicopathologic and radiographic features and etiologic agents in cats that died as a result of infectious pneumonia.

Design—Retrospective study.

Animals—39 cats.

Procedure—Medical records of cats in which infectious pneumonia was confirmed by histologic examination of necropsy specimens were reviewed. Signalment, clinical signs, and results of a CBC, viral serologic tests, and thoracic radiography were evaluated. Infectious agents were classified as bacterial, viral, fungal, protozoal, or parasitic. Histologic features (severity, duration, anatomic location, and distribution) were analyzed.

Results—Clinical signs referable to the respiratory tract were not detected in 14 of 39 (36%) cats, and results of a CBC (4/18 cats) and radiography (3/13) were unremarkable. Sixteen of 39 (41%) cats lacked clinical signs of systemic illness. Etiologic agents identified included bacteria (n = 21), viruses (11), fungi (6), protozoa (2), and parasites (1). Cats with clinical signs related to the respiratory tract (19/24 [79%] cats) were more likely to have severe histologic changes than cats without signs related to the respiratory system (6/14). Twenty-nine of 38 (76%) cats had histologic evidence of systemic disease, whereas the remaining cats had lesions limited to the respiratory tract.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Infectious pneumonia is uncommon in cats. Cats with infectious pneumonia may lack clinical signs and have unremarkable results for a CBC and thoracic radiography, yet frequently have systemic infections. Therefore, clinicians should maintain an index of suspicion for pneumonia and evaluate the respiratory tract when infection is detected in other organ systems. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2003;223:1142–1150)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To compare results of thoracic radiography, cytologic evaluation of bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid, and histologic evaluation of biopsy and necropsy specimens in dogs with respiratory tract disease and to determine whether histologic evaluation provides important diagnostic information not attainable by the other methods.

Design—Retrospective study.

Animals—16 dogs.

Procedure—BAL fluid was classified as normal, neutrophilic, eosinophilic, mononuclear, mixed, neoplastic, or nondiagnostic. Radiographic abnormalities were classified as interstitial, bronchial, bronchointerstitial, or alveolar. Histologic lesions were classified as inflammatory, fibrotic, or neoplastic, and the predominant site of histologic lesions was classified as the alveoli, interstitium, or airway.

Results—The predominant radiographic location of lesions correlated with the histologic location in 8 dogs. Of 11 dogs with histologic evidence of inflammatory disease, 8 had inflammatory BAL fluid. Of the 2 dogs with histologic evidence of neoplasia, 1 had BAL fluid suggestive of neoplasia, and the other had BAL fluid consistent with septic purulent inflammation. Two dogs without any histologic abnormalities had mononuclear or nondiagnostic BAL fluid. Two dogs with histologic evidence of fibrosis had mononuclear or mixed inflammatory BAL fluid.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest that although thoracic radiography, cytologic evaluation of BAL fluid, and histologic evaluation of lung specimens are complementary, each method has limitations in regard to how well results reflect the underlying disease process in dogs with respiratory tract disease. Lung biopsy should be considered in cases where results of radiography and cytology are nondiagnostic. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2001;218: 1456–1461)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate serum feline trypsin-like immunoreactivity (fTLI) concentration and results of abdominal ultrasonography, CBC, and serum biochemical analyses for diagnosis of pancreatitis in cats.

Design—Prospective study.

Animals—28 cats with clinical signs compatible with pancreatitis.

Procedure—Serum fTLI concentrations were determined, and abdominal ultrasonography, CBC, and serum biochemical analyses were performed prior to histologic evaluation of pancreatic, hepatic, and intestinal specimens. On the basis of histologic results, cats were categorized as having a normal pancreas (n = 10), pancreatic fibrosis with ongoing inflammation (9), pancreatic fibrosis without inflammation (4), and acute necrotizing pancreatitis (5). Serum fTLI concentrations and results of CBC, serum biochemical analyses, and histologic evaluation of hepatic and intestinal specimens were compared among groups.

Results—Significant differences in serum fTLI concentrations or any hematologic or biochemical variable were not detected among the 4 groups of cats. Median serum fTLI concentrations were 51 µg/L (range, 18 to 200 µg/L) in cats with a normal pancreas, 32 µg/L (range, 12 to > 200 µg/L) in cats with pancreatic fibrosis and ongoing inflammation, 124 µg/L (range, 36 to > 200 µg/L) in cats with pancreatic fibrosis without ongoing inflammation, and 30 µg/L (range, 24 to 84 µg/L) in cats with acute necrotizing pancreatitis. We detected a high prevalence of concurrent hepatic and intestinal tract disease in cats with pancreatitis.

Conclusion and Clinical Relevance—In cats with clinical signs of pancreatitis, serum fTLI concentration is poorly associated with histopathologic diagnosis. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2000;217:37–42)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate changes in cysteinyl leukotriene (LT) concentrations in urine and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) in cats with experimentally induced asthma.

Animals—19 cats with experimentally induced asthma and 5 control cats.

Procedure—Cats were sensitized to Bermuda grass or house dust mite allergen, and phenotypic features of asthma were confirmed with intradermal skin testing, evaluation of BALF eosinophil percentages, and pulmonary function testing. A competitive ELISA kit for LTC4, LTD4, and LTE4 was used for quantitative analysis of LTs. Urinary creatinine concentrations and BALF total protein (TP) concentrations were measured, and urinary LT-to-creatinine ratios and BALF LTto- TP ratios were calculated.

Results—Mean urinary LT-to-creatinine ratios did not differ significantly between control cats and allergensensitized cats before or after sensitization and challenge exposure with saline (0.9% NaCl) solution or allergen, respectively. In BALF, the mean LT-to-TP ratio of control cats did not differ significantly before or after sensitization and challenge exposure with saline. Asthmatic cats had BALF LT-to-TP ratios that were significantly lower than control cats at all time points, whereas ratios for asthmatic cats did not differ significantly among the various time points.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Although LTs were readily detectable in urine, no significant increases in urinary LT concentrations were detected after challenge in allergen-sensitized cats. Spot testing of urinary LT concentrations appears to have no clinical benefit for use in monitoring the inflammatory asthmatic state in cats. The possibility that cysteinyl LTs bind effectively to their target receptors in BALF and, thus, decrease free LT concentrations deserves further study. (Am J Vet Res 2003;64:1449–1453)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research