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Abstract

Objective—To determine clinical signs, physical examination findings, radiographic features, and concurrent diseases in cats with laryngeal paralysis, as well as evaluate the outcome of medical or surgical management.

Design—Retrospective study.

Animals—16 cats.

Procedure—Medical records from January 1990 to April 1999 were examined for cats with laryngeal paralysis. Signalment, clinical signs, physical examination findings, cervical and thoracic radiographic findings, laryngeal examination results, and clinical outcome were reviewed.

Results—No breed or sex predilection was identified in 16 cats with laryngeal paralysis. The most common clinical signs included tachypnea or dyspnea, dysphagia, weight loss, change in vocalization, coughing, and lethargy. Clinical signs were evident for a median of 245 days. Airway obstruction was apparent on cervical and thoracic radiographic views in 9 cats. Examination of the larynx revealed bilateral laryngeal paralysis in 12 cats and unilateral laryngeal paralysis in 4 cats. The 4 cats with unilateral disease were managed with medical treatment, and 3 of these had acceptable long-term outcomes. Seven of 12 cats with bilateral paralysis underwent surgery; procedures performed included left arytenoid tie back, bilateral arytenoid tie back and ventriculocordectomy, and partial left arytenoidectomy. One cat was euthanatized as a result of complications from surgery.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Laryngeal paralysis is an uncommon cause of airway obstruction in cats. Cats with less severe clinical signs (often with unilateral paralysis) may be successfully managed with medical treatment, whereas cats with severe airway obstruction (often with bilateral paralysis) may benefit from surgical intervention.(J Am Vet Med Assoc 2000;216:1100–1103)

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To determine clinical, radiographic, and pathologic features of bronchiectasis in cats.

Design—Retrospective study.

Animals—12 cats with histologic evidence of bronchiectasis.

Procedure—Information on signalment, body weight, clinical signs of respiratory disease, concurrent diseases, method by which lung tissue specimens were obtained (surgical biopsy or necropsy), and histopathologic findings was obtained by reviewing medical records from January 1987 to June 1999 for cats with confirmation of bronchiectasis by histologic examination. Available thoracic radiographs were reviewed by a board-certified radiologist.

Results—Bronchiectasis was most commonly identified in older male cats. Clinical signs referable to the lower portion of the respiratory tract were detected in only 5 cats but, when evident, were usually chronic (duration > 1 year). Radiographic pattern of bronchiectasis was cylindrical in 4 cats, and in 1 of these cats, a saccular pattern was also identified. For most cats, bronchiectasis was detected in a single lung lobe. Radiographic evidence of bronchiectasis was not detected in 2 cats. Concurrent respiratory diseases included chronic bronchitis and bronchiolitis, neoplasia, bronchopneumonia, endogenous lipid pneumonia, and emphysema.

Conclusion and Clinical Relevance—Bronchiectasis appears to be an uncommon respiratory tract disorder that predominantly affects older male cats. Thoracic radiography may not be sensitive for the diagnosis of bronchiectasis in cats. Bronchiectasis in cats appears to be a sequela of chronic inflammatory bronchopulmonary diseases, especially chronic bronchitis, neoplasia, and bronchopneumonia. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2000;216:530–534)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To characterize interstitial lung diseases (ILDs) and evaluate use of keyhole lung biopsy for diagnosis of ILDs in dogs and cats.

Design—Retrospective study.

Animals—11 dogs and 2 cats.

Procedure—Medical records of dogs and cats undergoing keyhole lung biopsy to confirm ILDs were reviewed. Signalment, clinical signs, results of thoracic radiography and other respiratory diagnostic tests, postoperative complications, and patient outcome were analyzed.

Results—Clinical respiratory signs included cough, tachypnea, exercise intolerance, and hemoptysis. Thoracic radiographic abnormalities included interstitial, alveolar, and bronchointerstitial patterns and multiple discrete pulmonary nodules. Lung biopsy and histologic examination revealed interstitial pulmonary fibrosis, bronchiolitis obliterans with organizing pneumonia, or unclassified lesions. Outcome after biopsy included no response to treatment, euthanasia, partial or complete remission while receiving medication, and cure.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Recognition and classification of ILDs in dogs and cats are likely to be important in guiding appropriate treatment and providing accurate prognostic information. Ancillary respiratory diagnostic tests are beneficial in ruling out infectious and neoplastic disorders that may mimic ILDs; however, their present use in the diagnosis of ILDs is limited. Results suggest that keyhole lung biopsy is an effective means for obtaining a specimen for histologic diagnosis in dogs and cats with ILDs. ( J Am Vet Med Assoc 2002;221:1453–1459)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To determine clinicopathologic and radiographic features and etiologic agents in cats that died as a result of infectious pneumonia.

Design—Retrospective study.

Animals—39 cats.

Procedure—Medical records of cats in which infectious pneumonia was confirmed by histologic examination of necropsy specimens were reviewed. Signalment, clinical signs, and results of a CBC, viral serologic tests, and thoracic radiography were evaluated. Infectious agents were classified as bacterial, viral, fungal, protozoal, or parasitic. Histologic features (severity, duration, anatomic location, and distribution) were analyzed.

Results—Clinical signs referable to the respiratory tract were not detected in 14 of 39 (36%) cats, and results of a CBC (4/18 cats) and radiography (3/13) were unremarkable. Sixteen of 39 (41%) cats lacked clinical signs of systemic illness. Etiologic agents identified included bacteria (n = 21), viruses (11), fungi (6), protozoa (2), and parasites (1). Cats with clinical signs related to the respiratory tract (19/24 [79%] cats) were more likely to have severe histologic changes than cats without signs related to the respiratory system (6/14). Twenty-nine of 38 (76%) cats had histologic evidence of systemic disease, whereas the remaining cats had lesions limited to the respiratory tract.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Infectious pneumonia is uncommon in cats. Cats with infectious pneumonia may lack clinical signs and have unremarkable results for a CBC and thoracic radiography, yet frequently have systemic infections. Therefore, clinicians should maintain an index of suspicion for pneumonia and evaluate the respiratory tract when infection is detected in other organ systems. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2003;223:1142–1150)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To determine clinical signs, radiographic and histologic abnormalities, and concurrent diseases in cats with endogenous lipid pneumonia (EnLP) and to determine the pathologic importance of EnLP in cats.

Design—Retrospective study.

Animals—24 cats.

Procedure—Medical records of cats in which EnLP was confirmed by histologic examination of necropsy specimens were reviewed. Information collected from the medical records included signalment, body weight, clinical signs, and results of clinicopathologic tests. Thoracic radiographs were reviewed by a radiologist; histologic specimens were reviewed by a pathologist.

Results—All cats had nonspecific clinical abnormalities, such as lethargy, anorexia, or weight loss; 16 had signs of respiratory tract disease. All cats had concurrent systemic diseases, and clinicopathologic abnormalities were reflective of these conditions. Nonspecific abnormalities were detected on thoracic radiographs from 9 of 11 cats. Most cats had macroscopic, multifocal, subpleural lesions; inflammatory infiltrates, cholesterol clefts, and multinucleated giant cells were common. Ten cats had an underlying obstructive pulmonary disease that was the likely cause of EnLP. Lesions of EnLP were not considered to be severe enough or extensive enough to be the cause of death in any of these cats.

Conclusion and Clinical Relevance—EnLP is an uncommon respiratory tract disorder of cats with no pathognomonic clinical, laboratory, or radiographic findings. Although EnLP was not the cause of death in any of these cats, results of the present study do suggest that EnLP may be a marker for potentially severe underlying obstructive pulmonary disease. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2000;216:1437–1440)

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Objective

To determine clinical signs, clinicopathologic abnormalities, radiographic findings, histologic abnormalities, and predisposing factors or diseases in cats with pulmonary thromboembolism (PTE).

Design

Retrospective study.

Animals

29 cats in which PTE was confirmed at necropsy.

Procedure

Information on signalment, body weight, history, results of physical examination, results of CBC and serum biochemical analyses, whether PTE was suspected prior to death, type of indwelling venous catheter and duration of venous catheterization, results of thoracic radiography, and whether cats had any concurrent diseases was obtained from medical records.

Results

PTE was identified in cats of various ages (median, 8.7 years), weights (median, 4.1 kg [9 lb]), and breeds. The most common owner-reported problems included lethargy (17 cats), anorexia (14), weight loss (10), and difficulty breathing (8); physical abnormalities included lethargy (21), tachypnea or dyspnea (16), and dehydration (13). Clinicopathologic abnormalities reflected concurrent or underlying diseases. Common radiographic abnormalities included pulmonary vessel abnormalities (11), pleural effusion (8), and peripheral noncircumscribed consolidations (6). Underlying or predisposing conditions, including cardiac disease (12), neoplasia (10), corticosteroid administration (8), disseminated intravascular coagulation (5), protein-losing nephropathy (4) or enteropathy (4), immune-mediated hemolytic anemia (2), and sepsis (2) were identified in all cats.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance

Results suggest that PTE can develop in cats of any age, sex, or breed. Because PTE is a serious, potentially life-threatening disease, it should be suspected in cats with thoracic radiographic changes suggestive of uneven distribution of blood flow between lung lobes, especially in cats that have predisposing factors or diseases. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 1999;215:1650–1654)

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Objective

To determine magnesium (Mg) status in cats with naturally acquired diabetes mellitus (DM) and diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA), evaluate changes in Mg status after treatment for DKA, and correlate Mg status with systemic blood pressure and degree of glycemic control.

Design

Case series and cohort study.

Animals

12 healthy cats (controls), 21 cats with DM, and 7 cats with DKA.

Procedure

Serum total magnesium (tMg) and ionized magnesium (iMg) concentrations and spot urinary fractional excretion of magnesium (FEmg) were determined, using serum and urine samples obtained from all cats when they were entered in the study and from cats with DKA 12, 24, and 48 hours after initiating treatment. Indirect blood pressure and degree of glycemic control were determined in 10 and 21 cats with DM, respectively.

Results

Initially, 2 and 13 cats with DM and 1 and 4 cats with DKA had serum tMg and iMg concentrations, respectively, less than the low reference limit (mean — 2 SD) determined for controls. In cats with DKA, serum tMg concentration decreased significantly over time after initiating treatment. Urinary FEmg was significantly higher in cats with DM or DKA, compared with controls. Systemic hypertension was not detected nor was there a correlation between Mg status and degree of glycemic control in cats with DM.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance

Hypomagnesemia was a common finding in cats with DM and DKA and was more readily identified by measuring serum iMg concentration than tMg concentration. The clinical ramifications of hypomagnesemia in such cats remain to be determined. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 1999;215:1455–1459)

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective

To evaluate the efficacy of using serum total and ionized magnesium (Mg) concentrations and urine Mg concentrations to identify Mg deficiency in cats.

Animals

6 healthy castrated male cats.

Procedure

A Mg-replete diet was fed for 37 days, followed by a Mg-deficient diet for 37 days. On days 1, 3, and 7 of the last week of each diet, serum ionized and total Mg concentrations were determined; in addition, urine Mg concentration was determined each day of the last week. Serum total and ionized Mg concentrations were compared with urine Mg concentration, amount of Mg excreted during 24 hours (24-hour urine Mg excretion), ratio of urine Mg concentration to urine creatinine concentration (Umg:Ucr), and urinary fractional excretion of Mg (FEmg) to determine which variable best predicted Mg status.

Results

Cats fed Mg-deficient diets had significantly lower serum total and ionized Mg concentrations and 24-hour urine Mg excretion values, compared with cats fed Mg-replete diets. Serum total Mg concentration was the best predictor of Mg status. Twenty-four-hour urine Mg excretion was a repeatable, reliable measurement and had the best correlation with serum total Mg concentration. Serum total Mg concentration also correlated with urine Mg concentration, Umg:Ucr, and FEmg.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance

Serum total and ionized Mg concentrations can be used to identify cats with dietary-induced Mg deficiencies. Twenty-four-hour urine Mg excretion and urine Mg concentration correlated best with serum total Mg concentration and, therefore, may be the most useful urine variables for identifying Mg deficiency. (Am J Vet Res 1999;60:1159–1163)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

SUMMARY

Objective

To determine disposition of cyproheptadine hydrochloride in cats after intravenous or oral administration of a single dose.

Animals

6 healthy cats.

Procedure

A randomized crossover design was used, and each cat was studied after intravenous (2 mg) and oral (8 mg) administration of cyproheptadine. Blood samples were collected at fixed time intervals after drug administration, and serum cyproheptadine concentration was determined by means of polarized immunofluorescence.

Results

Mean (± SD) residence time was significantly longer after oral (823 ± 191 minutes) than after intravenous (339 ±217 minutes) administration, but no significant differences were detected between other pharmacokinetic parameters after oral and intravenous administration. Mean ± SD oral bioavailability was 1.01 ± 0.36. Mean elimination half-life after oral administration was 12.8 ± 9.9 hours. Peak extrapolated cyproheptadine concentration was 669 ± 206 ng/ml. Only 1 cat developed adverse effects (transient vocalization).

Conclusions

Cyproheptadine appeared to be well tolerated in cats and had high bioavailability after oral administration. The mean elimination half-life of 12 hours indicated that approximately 2.5 days must elapse to achieve steady-state concentrations of cyproheptadine after oral administration of multiple doses. A 12-hour dosing interval is acceptable, but an 8-hour interval may be indicated for some cats.

Clinical Relevance

On the basis of pharmacokinetic parameters determined in this study, the oral form of cyproheptadine appears to be suitable for use in clinical trials to treat anorexia in cats. Its half-life is compatible with once or twice daily dosing. (Am J Vet Res 1998;59:79–81)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To compare results of thoracic radiography, cytologic evaluation of bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid, and histologic evaluation of biopsy and necropsy specimens in dogs with respiratory tract disease and to determine whether histologic evaluation provides important diagnostic information not attainable by the other methods.

Design—Retrospective study.

Animals—16 dogs.

Procedure—BAL fluid was classified as normal, neutrophilic, eosinophilic, mononuclear, mixed, neoplastic, or nondiagnostic. Radiographic abnormalities were classified as interstitial, bronchial, bronchointerstitial, or alveolar. Histologic lesions were classified as inflammatory, fibrotic, or neoplastic, and the predominant site of histologic lesions was classified as the alveoli, interstitium, or airway.

Results—The predominant radiographic location of lesions correlated with the histologic location in 8 dogs. Of 11 dogs with histologic evidence of inflammatory disease, 8 had inflammatory BAL fluid. Of the 2 dogs with histologic evidence of neoplasia, 1 had BAL fluid suggestive of neoplasia, and the other had BAL fluid consistent with septic purulent inflammation. Two dogs without any histologic abnormalities had mononuclear or nondiagnostic BAL fluid. Two dogs with histologic evidence of fibrosis had mononuclear or mixed inflammatory BAL fluid.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest that although thoracic radiography, cytologic evaluation of BAL fluid, and histologic evaluation of lung specimens are complementary, each method has limitations in regard to how well results reflect the underlying disease process in dogs with respiratory tract disease. Lung biopsy should be considered in cases where results of radiography and cytology are nondiagnostic. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2001;218: 1456–1461)

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association