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To examine Escherichia coli isolates obtained from dogs dying with diarrhea for heat-labile, heat-stable, and Shiga-like toxins and for the eaeA gene, which is associated with attaching and effacing lesions.


Retrospective study.


122 dogs.


E coli isolates were tested by means of dot-blot hybridization of DNA extracts of cultured bacteria. Medical records of dogs from which E coli isolates with virulence genes had been isolated were examined, and histologic findings and evidence of intercurrent bacterial and viral infections were recorded.


None of the E coli isolates obtained from these dogs produced heat-labile, heat-stable, or Shiga-like toxins; however, E coli isolates from 44 of 122 dogs were found to have the eaeA gene. Histologically, multifocal bacterial adherence to the epithelium and epithelial necrosis and detachment were seen in colonic specimens from 20 of 44 (45%) dogs. Escherichia coli was the sole pathogen identified in 15 of 44 (34%) dogs. Intercurrent pathogens, including canine parvovirus (n = 19). Clostridium perfringens (8), rotavirus (5). hookworms (3). coccidia (3). and Salmonella agona (1). were identified in the remaining 29 (66%) dogs.

Clinical Implications

Attaching and effacing E coli can be a primary or secondary pathogen in dogs with diarrhea. Antibiotic treatment is indicated in dogs with diarrhea because of the possibility that it is primarily bacterial in origin and because, even if it is primarily viral in origin, there may be secondary bacterial infection. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 1998;212:1735–1736)

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association


Zinc acetate was used for the treatment and prophylaxis of hepatic copper toxicosis in 3 Bedlington Terriers and 3 West Highland White Terriers. Two dogs of each breed were treated for 2 years, and 1 of each breed for 1 year. A dosage of 200 mg of elemental zinc per day was required to achieve therapeutic objectives related to copper, which included a doubling of plasma zinc concentration to 200 μg/dl and a suppression of oral 64 copper absorption. The dosage was later reduced to 50 to 100 mg/day to avoid an excessive increase in plasma zinc concentration. The preliminary clinical results were good. Three dogs had mild to moderate active liver disease and high liver copper concentrations at the time of initiation of zinc administration. Biopsy of the liver 2 years later revealed a reduction in hepatitis and copper concentrations. One other dog without active hepatitis also had a reduction in hepatic copper concentrations over a 2-year period. All 6 dogs have done well clinically. On the basis of these findings, we believe zinc acetate to be an effective and nontoxic treatment for copper toxicosis in dogs.

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association


Salmonella choleraesuis was isolated in pure or mixed bacterial cultures from 153 swine necropsied between Jan 1, 1987 and Dec 31, 1990. Pneumonia was seen in 99 of 109 swine from which this bacterium was isolated in the absence of other pathogenic bacteria. Pneumonia was seen more frequently than hepatitis, splenomegaly, or colitis. Pleuropneumonia that was grossly indistinguishable from the pleuropneumonia associated with Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae was seen in 29 of 99 swine from which S choleraesuis was the only bacterium isolated.

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association