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  • Author or Editor: Carol Maddox x
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Abstract

Objective—To determine whether an association exists between oral bacterial contamination of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and positive PCR assay results for the detection of Mycoplasma spp in BALF samples of dogs with lower respiratory tract (LRT; portion from the trachea to the lungs) disease.

Design—Retrospective case series.

Animals—121 dogs with LRT disease.

Procedures—Medical records from January 2005 to April 2012 were reviewed. Dogs with LRT disease that had BALF samples evaluated by use of Mycoplasma-specific PCR assay, bacterial culture, and cytologic examination were included. Information on signalment, final diagnoses, and BALF testing results was extracted.

Results—83 (68.6%) dogs had BALF samples with negative PCR assay results for Mycoplasma spp, and 38 (31.4%) had positive results. The BALF samples with cytologic evidence of oral bacterial contamination were 5.1 times as likely to have positive Mycoplasma-specific PCR assay results as were noncontaminated samples. Compared with hound or herding dogs, other breeds were 13.6 times as likely to have positive PCR assay results. Dogs with bronchitis were less likely than dogs with other LRT diseases to have positive Mycoplasma-specific PCR assay results. No significant association was found between Mycoplasma-specific PCR assay results and bacterial culture results.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—In dogs with LRT disease, Mycoplasma-specific PCR assay results for BALF samples should be interpreted in terms of possible oral bacterial contamination. Mycoplasma-specific PCR assay of BALF samples from herding dogs, hound dogs, and dogs with bronchitis may be less rewarding than for other dogs with LRT disease.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Summary

Escherichia coli isolate 7996-90, obtained from a calf with diarrhea, had negative results of tests for K-88, K-99, 987P, F41, CS31A, F1845, F165 or E coli adherence factor adhesins and had negative results of tests for the toxins heat-labile, heat-stable A, heatstable B, Shiga-like toxin (slt)-I or slt-II. Strain 7996-90 had localized adherence to HEp-2 cells, caused actin rearrangement in host cells to which it adhered, hybridized with the eaeA probe, and produced the 94-kd outer membrane protein associated with attaching effacing lesions. This isolate caused attaching effacing lesions in Caco-2 cell polar monolayers, rabbit intestinal loops, and the intestines of gnotobiotic pigs. The isolate belongs to serotype O26:NM and is considered a class-II attaching effacing enteropathogenic E coli. Until recent addition of more sensitive assays at veterinary diagnostic laboratories, isolates such as 7996-90 were not readily recognized as pathogens because they failed to fit into the enterohemorrhagic E coli group, members of which, be definition, produce slt. The assays described can facilitate diagnosis of attaching effacing E coli infection when histologic evaluation is hampered by autolysis.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate a commercially available modified-live Streptococcus equi subsp equi vaccine for safety and persistence in vaccinated ponies and to detect recombination or reversion events in the vaccine strain.

Animals—5 ponies that were 1.5 to 8 years old (group 1) and 4 ponies that were 6 months old (group 2).

Procedures—Ponies were vaccinated, with a subsequent booster vaccination 2 to 3 weeks later, and monitored for 50 days. At booster vaccination, an equal amount of a tetracycline-resistant wild-type strain of S equiwas administered. Recovery of all strains was performed by use of bacteriologic culture and PCR assays.

Results—Ponies in group 1 had background antibody titers against S equi antigen before vaccination despite the lack of known exposure to S equi. Ponies in group 2 were immunologically naïve. Increases in anti-S equi antibody titers were detected in both groups. Ponies in group 1 did not have clinical signs of disease caused by S equi. In group 2, all ponies developed abscesses in retropharyngeal lymph nodes; 1 pony developed severe clinical disease and was euthanized. The vaccine strain was recovered from ponies in group 2 for up to 24 days after vaccination.

Conclusions and Clinical Significance—Although the vaccine was successful in inducing IgG antibodies against S equi in all ponies, findings suggested that the vaccine may have caused substantial morbidity and some deaths in the young ponies. In young ponies, the vaccine strain persisted in tissues for weeks; however, no evidence of recombination was detected.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To determine the incidence of bacteremia, as detected by routine methods for bacterial culture of blood samples, following routine endoscopic biopsy of the stomach and duodenum in healthy research dogs and to determine whether treatment with omeprazole administration affected the incidence of bacteremia.

Animals—8 healthy purpose-bred research dogs.

Procedures—All dogs underwent gastroduodenoscopy with biopsy at 4 points: twice prior to treatment with omeprazole, once following 15 days of omeprazole treatment (20 mg, PO, q 12 h), and once 14 days after treatment ceased. Dogs had a mean ± SD body weight of 18.6 ± 2.0 kg. Blood samples were aseptically obtained at 3 points during each procedure (before, immediately following, and 24 hours after endoscopy), and routine aerobic and anaerobic bacterial culture of blood was performed.

Results—96 cultures were attempted for each culture method, yielding positive results of aerobic culture for 2 dogs at separate time points and no positive results of anaerobic culture.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Routine gastrointestinal endoscopy with biopsy in healthy dogs did not result in a detectable bacteremia in most dogs. Treatment with the gastric acid–suppressing medication omeprazole did not affect the incidence of bacteremia as detected via standard techniques.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Objective

To examine Escherichia coli isolates obtained from dogs dying with diarrhea for heat-labile, heat-stable, and Shiga-like toxins and for the eaeA gene, which is associated with attaching and effacing lesions.

Design

Retrospective study.

Animals

122 dogs.

Procedure

E coli isolates were tested by means of dot-blot hybridization of DNA extracts of cultured bacteria. Medical records of dogs from which E coli isolates with virulence genes had been isolated were examined, and histologic findings and evidence of intercurrent bacterial and viral infections were recorded.

Results

None of the E coli isolates obtained from these dogs produced heat-labile, heat-stable, or Shiga-like toxins; however, E coli isolates from 44 of 122 dogs were found to have the eaeA gene. Histologically, multifocal bacterial adherence to the epithelium and epithelial necrosis and detachment were seen in colonic specimens from 20 of 44 (45%) dogs. Escherichia coli was the sole pathogen identified in 15 of 44 (34%) dogs. Intercurrent pathogens, including canine parvovirus (n = 19). Clostridium perfringens (8), rotavirus (5). hookworms (3). coccidia (3). and Salmonella agona (1). were identified in the remaining 29 (66%) dogs.

Clinical Implications

Attaching and effacing E coli can be a primary or secondary pathogen in dogs with diarrhea. Antibiotic treatment is indicated in dogs with diarrhea because of the possibility that it is primarily bacterial in origin and because, even if it is primarily viral in origin, there may be secondary bacterial infection. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 1998;212:1735–1736)

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Objective

To evaluate host and environmental factors associated with the development of encephalitic listeriosis in goats.

Design

Retrospective analysis of diagnostic laboratory records and survey of veterinarians and goat producers.

Sample Population

355 goat herds accessible through laboratory records; 38 veterinarians who treated goats and 76 goat producers.

Procedure

Data regarding breed and use for goats affected with encephalitic listeriosis were obtained from surveys and case follow-up information. Listeria monocytogenes isolates from the brains of 7 affected goats were serotyped and subjected to DNA restriction analysis.

Results

Odds ratio for the development of encephalitis listeriosis in Angora (mohair-producing) goats was 22.9 by use of diagnostic laboratory records. Surveys also revealed a high prevalence in herds of Angora and other breeds that subsisted on woody browse, although Angora goats feeding predominantly on hay or pasture were not affected. Listeria monocytogenes isolates from 4 Angora goats in 3 herds differed in DNA restriction patterns, although the pattern was identical in 3 other goats from another herd.

Clinical Implications

Encephalitic listeriosis can be observed in all goat breeds, but a lifestyle of heavy browse consumption seems important to the development of disease in some herds. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 1996;208:1695-1699)

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Summary

Salmonella choleraesuis was isolated in pure or mixed bacterial cultures from 153 swine necropsied between Jan 1, 1987 and Dec 31, 1990. Pneumonia was seen in 99 of 109 swine from which this bacterium was isolated in the absence of other pathogenic bacteria. Pneumonia was seen more frequently than hepatitis, splenomegaly, or colitis. Pleuropneumonia that was grossly indistinguishable from the pleuropneumonia associated with Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae was seen in 29 of 99 swine from which S choleraesuis was the only bacterium isolated.

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association