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  • Author or Editor: Carol Lichtensteiger x
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Objective—To compare pathologic changes of the horizontal ear canal associated with chronic severe otitis externa between Cocker Spaniels and dogs of other breeds.

Design—Retrospective study.

Animals—80 dogs with severe otitis externa that required total ear canal ablation with lateral bulla osteotomy.

Procedure—Medical records were reviewed for breed, sex, and age at time of surgery. Histologic specimens from the horizontal ear canal were evaluated by a single examiner for overall tissue response pattern and scored for sebaceous gland hyperplasia, ceruminous gland hyperplasia, ceruminous gland ectasia, fibrosis, pigment-laden macrophages, and osseous metaplasia.

Results—48 of 80 (60%) dogs were Cocker Spaniels. Thirty-five of 48 (72.9%) Cocker Spaniels had a predominately ceruminous tissue response pattern; only 9 of 32 (28.1%) dogs of other breeds had the same pattern. Other breeds most commonly had a pattern dominated by fibrosis (n = 13 [40.6%]); fibrosis was the predominant pattern in only 4 of 48 (8.3%) Cocker Spaniels. Discriminant analysis and K-means clustering of 4 histopathologic criteria correctly classified 75% of the dogs as Cocker Spaniels or all other breeds.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Cocker Spaniels are at increased risk for chronic severe otitis externa requiring total ear canal ablation with lateral bulla osteotomy, indicating that earlier and more aggressive management of the primary otitis externa and secondary inflammation is warranted in this breed. Cocker Spaniels with chronic severe otitis externa have distinct differences in pathologic characteristics of the horizontal ear canal, compared with other breeds. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2002;221: 1000–1006)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association


Objective—To compare serologic testing with slaughter evaluation in assessing effects of subclinical infection on average daily weight gain (ADG) in pigs.

Design—Cohort study.

Animals—18 cohorts (30 to 35 pigs/cohort) of pigs on 7 farms.

Procedure—Blood samples were collected, and pigs were weighed at 8, 16, and 24 weeks of age. Sera were tested for antibodies to porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV), swine influenza virus (SIV), transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV), pseudorabies virus, Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae, and Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae. At slaughter, skin, nasal turbinates, lungs, and liver were examined. Associations between ADG and results of serologic testing and slaughter evaluation were examined by use of multiple linear regression.

Results—Pathogens that had a significant effect on any given farm during any given year and the magnitude of that effect varied. However, at 16 and 24 weeks of age, a higher antibody titer was consistently associated with a lower ADG. Mean differences in ADG between seropositive and seronegative pigs were 18 g/d (0.04 lb/d) for SIV, 40 g/d (0.09 lb/d) for PRRSV, 38 g/d (0.08 lb/d) for M hyopneumoniae, and 116 g/d (0.26 lb/d) for TGEV. Of the evaluations performed at slaughter, only detection of lung lesions was consistently associated with a decrease in ADG.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest that subclinical infection with any of a variety of pathogens commonly found in swine herds was associated with a decrease in ADG. Serologic testing was more effective than slaughter evaluation in assessing the impact of subclinical infection on ADG in these pigs. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2000;217:888–895)

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association