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  • Author or Editor: Carol J. Detrisac x
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Objective—To evaluate efficacy and safety of IP administration of high-molecular-weight carboxymethylcellulose (HMW CMC) for the prevention of postoperative intra-abdominal adhesions in ponies.

Animals—10 ponies.

Procedure—A 1% solution of HMW CMC was instilled intra-abdominally prior to surgery in 5 ponies, whereas 5 control ponies did not receive HMW CMC. Postoperative adhesions were induced by use of a bowel-abrasion method comprising laparotomy, typhlotomy, and abrasion of jejunal serosa at multiple sites with placement of 3 sutures at each site. Day of surgery was day 0. After surgery, ponies were monitored, and hematologic, serum biochemical, and peritoneal fluid analyses were performed on days 1, 2, 3, 5, 7, and 10. On day 10, ponies were euthanatized. Intra-abdominal adhesions were recorded, and tissue samples were collected for histologic examination.

Results—A significantly greater number of adhesions, number of multiple adhesions, and mean incidence of adhesions were identified in control ponies, compared with CMC-treated ponies. Mean peritoneal fluid WBC count on day 7 and serum fibrinogen concentrations on days 5 and 7 were significantly higher in control ponies, compared with CMC-treated ponies. Results of serum biochemical analyses did not differ significantly between the 2 groups.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Intra-abdominal use of 1% HMW CMC during surgery was effective for preventing postoperative adhesions in ponies. Use of HMW CMC did not have detrimental effects on wound healing, intra-abdominal defenses, or patient health. A 1% solution of HMW CMC may be used routinely during abdominal surgery of horses for prevention of postoperative adhesions. (Am J Vet Res 2002;63:1448–1454)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research


Objective—To determine whether thalidomide inhibits the growth of primary and pulmonary metastatic canine osteosarcoma in mice after xenotransplantation.

Animals—Athymic nude mice.

Procedure—Canine osteosarcoma cells were injected SC in 50 mice. Mice were randomly placed into the following groups: control group (n = 13; DMSO [drug vehicle] alone [0.1 mL/d, IP]); low-dose group (12; thalidomide [100 mg/kg, IP]), mid-dose group (13; thalidomide [200 mg/kg, IP]); and high-dose group (12; thalidomide [400 mg/kg, IP]). Starting on day 8, treatments were administered daily and tumor measurements were performed for 20 days. On day 28, mice were euthanatized and primary tumors were weighed. Lungs were examined histologically to determine the number of mice with metastasis and tumor emboli. Mean area of the pulmonary micrometastatic foci was determined for mice from each group.

Results—Primary tumor size and weight were not significantly different among groups. The number of mice in the mid-dose (200 mg/kg) and high-dose (400 mg/kg) groups with micrometastasis was significantly less than the number of control group mice; however, the number of mice with tumor emboli was not affected by thalidomide treatment. Size of micrometastasis lesions was not affected by thalidomide treatment.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Mean area of micrometastases was not affected by treatment; however, growth of micrometastases had not yet reached an angiogenesis-dependent size. Although thalidomide did not affect growth of primary tumors in mice after xenotransplantation of canine osteosarcoma cells, our findings indicate that thalidomide may interfere with the ability of embolic tumor cells to complete the metastatic process within the lungs. ( Am J Vet Res 2004;65:659–664)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research


Objective—To determine signalment, clinical findings, results of diagnostic testing, outcome, and postmortem findings in horses with West Nile virus (WNV) encephalomyelitis.

Design—Retrospective study.

Animals—46 horses with WNV encephalomyelitis.

Procedure—Clinical data were extracted from medical records of affected horses.

Results—On the basis of clinical signs and results of serologic testing, WNV encephalomyelitis was diagnosed in 46 of 56 horses with CNS signs. Significantly more males than females were affected. Increased rectal temperature, weakness or ataxia, and muscle fasciculations were the most common clinical signs. Paresis was more common than ataxia, although both could be asymmetrical and multifocal. Supportive treatment included anti-inflammatory medications, fluids, antimicrobials, and slinging of recumbent horses. Results of the IgM capture ELISA and the plaque reduction neutralization test provided a diagnosis in 43 horses, and only results of the plaque reduction neutralization test were positive in 3 horses. Mortality rate was 30%, and 71% of recumbent horses were euthanatized. One horse that had received 2 vaccinations for WNV developed the disease and was euthanatized. Follow-up communications with 19 owners revealed that most horses had residual deficits at 1 month after release from the hospital; abnormalities were resolved in all but 2 horses by 12 months after release.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Our findings were similar to those of previous WNV outbreaks in horses but provided additional clinical details from monitored hospitalized horses. Diagnostic testing is essential to diagnosis, treatment is supportive, and recovery rate of discharged ambulatory horses is < 100%. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2003;222:1241–1247)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association