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SUMMARY

Five cats were made anemic by one-time phlebotomy, and their reticulocyte responses were monitored daily for 20 days, using manual enumeration and a standardized feline reticulocyte protocol developed and validated in our laboratory. The reticulocyte responses of 38 clinically normal client-owned cats also were analyzed manually and cytometrically to determine clinical reference ranges.

Increases in the percentage of aggregate reticulocytes over the reference range were detected in 5 of 5 phlebotomized cats, using the cytometric protocol. Only 4 of the 5 cats had an increase by results of manual enumeration. Manual aggregate counts had considerable daily variation and often fluctuated in and out of reference range, whereas cytometric aggregate counts remained consistently increased for distinct periods. Increased numbers of aggregate cells could also be detected for longer periods when evaluated by flow cytometry.

Increased numbers of punctate reticulocytes were detected in 4 of 5 cats, using the cytometric protocol. None of the cats had increased numbers of punctate cells when evaluated by use of the manual technique.

Aggregate reticulocytes in the 38 clinically normal cats ranged from 0.1 to 0.5%, which corresponded to 8,487 to 42,120 cells/μl. Punctate reticulocytes ranged from 2 to 17%, which corresponded to 225,400 to 1,268,584 cells/μl.

Flow cytometry, using a standardized analysis protocol, was a more reliable and sensitive technique for detection and evaluation of feline reticulocytosis than was manual enumeration. The sensitivity of the flow cytometer to small amounts of intracellular nucleoprotein makes this assay especially valuable for detection of punctate reticulocytosis and low degrees of aggregate reticulocytosis in cats.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Objective

To determine whether microcytosis is a typical finding in Shibas.

Design

Prospective study.

Animals

18 Shibas.

Procedure

Blood and serum samples were obtained for automated hematologic analyses (18 dogs) and for determination of ferritin concentration, using ELISA (14 dogs). Blood samples from 30 clinically normal dogs of various other breeds was analyzed to establish a reference range for ferritin concentration.

Results

Erythrocyte mean corpuscular volume in Shibas ranged from 55.6 to 69.1 fl (mean ± SD, 61.2 ± 4.3 fl; median, 60.6 fl; reference range, 63 to 73 fl). Microcytosis was identified in 12 of 18 dogs. Males and females were affected equally. Mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration was slightly low (range, 32.0 to 33.9%; reference range, 34 to 38%) in 6 dogs, 4 of which had microcytic RBC. Serum ferritin concentrations ranged from 61.2 to 277.0 ng/ml (mean ± SD, 110.6 ± 51.4 ng/ml; median, 106 ng/ml). Reference range for serum ferritin concentration was 50.7 to 440.0 ng/ml (mean ± SD, 121.2 ± 67.1 ng/ml; median, 111.5 ng/ml). Thrombocytopenia (range, 110,000 to 196,000 platelets; reference range, 200,000 to 450,000 platelets) was found in 7 dogs, 6 of which also had microcytic RBC.

Clinical Implications

Microcytosis can be a typical finding in Shibas. Common origin of Shibas and Akitas, a breed predisposed to microcytosis, suggests a hereditary basis for this finding. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 1998;212: 1258–1259)

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To determine historical, physical examination, hematologic, and serologic findings in dogs with Ehrlichia ewingii infection.

Design—Retrospective study.

Animals—15 dogs.

Procedure—In all dogs, infection with E ewingii was confirmed with a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay. Follow-up information and clarification of information recorded in the medical records was obtained by telephone interviews and facsimile correspondence with referring veterinarians and owners.

Results—Fever and lameness were the most common findings with each occurring in 8 dogs. Five dogs had neurologic abnormalities including ataxia, paresis, proprioceptive deficits, anisocoria, intention tremor, and head tilt. Neutrophilic polyarthritis was identified in 4 dogs. No clinical signs were reported in 3 dogs. The predominant hematologic abnormality was thrombocytopenia, which was identified in all 12 dogs for which a platelet count was available. Reactive lymphocytes were seen in 5 of 13 dogs. Concurrent infection with another rickettsial organism was identified in 4 dogs. Of the 13 dogs tested, 7 were seroreactive to E canis antigens. Morulae consistent with E ewingii infection were identified in neutrophils in 8 dogs. Treatment with doxycycline, with or without prednisone, resulted in a rapid, favorable clinical response in the 9 dogs for which follow-up information was available.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest that PCR testing for E ewingii infection should be considered in dogs with fever, neutrophilic polyarthritis, unexplained ataxia or paresis, thrombocytopenia, or unexplained reactive lymphocytes, and in dogs with clinical signs suggestive of ehrlichiosis that are seronegative for E canis. Following treatment with doxycycline, the prognosis for recovery is good. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2003;222:1102–1107)

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To determine whether bronchial brushings from dogs with chronic cough have increased numbers of goblet cells and WBCs, compared with numbers for healthy dogs, or have differing WBC populations, compared with populations in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid obtained from dogs with chronic cough.

Animals—9 healthy dogs and 10 dogs with chronic cough.

Procedure—Specimens were collected by use of bronchoscopy. Cellular composition was determined for brushings, and results from dogs with chronic cough were compared with those from healthy dogs. Cellular composition of brushings was compared with composition of BAL obtained from dogs with chronic cough.

Results—Brushings from healthy dogs contained a median of 2.9 × 106 epithelial cells, comprising 100% epithelial cells (96% ciliated, 3% goblet, and 1% other) and no WBCs. Brushings from dogs with chronic cough had 4.5 × 106 epithelial cells, comprising 93% epithelial cells (86% ciliated, 2% goblet, and 12% other). Dogs with chronic cough had significantly greater percentages of WBCs (7%) and neutrophils (6%), compared with values for healthy dogs. Five dogs with chronic cough had no neutrophilic inflammation evident in BAL, but 4 of these had evidence of neutrophilic inflammation in brushings.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Neutrophils, but not goblet cells, were increased in brushings from dogs with chronic cough. Analysis of bronchial brushings provides information about airway inflammation that differs from that found by examination of BAL in some dogs with chronic cough and is a more sensitive indicator of airway inflammation than cytologic examination of BAL in these dogs.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To determine the frequency of clinically relevant abnormalities missed by failure to perform a blood smear evaluation in a specific subset of dogs receiving chemotherapy and to compare automated and manual neutrophil counts in the same population

Design—Retrospective case series

Animals—50 dogs receiving chemotherapy with a total nucleated cell count > 4,000 nucleated cells/μL.

Procedures—50 blood smears were evaluated for abnormalities that have strong potential to change the medical plan for a patient: presence of blast cells, band neutrophils, nucleated RBCs, toxic change, hemoparasites, schistocytes, and spherocytes. Automated and manual neutrophil counts were compared.

Results—Blood smears from 10 (20%) patients had ≥ 1 abnormalities. Blast cells were identified on 4 (8%) blood smears, increased nucleated RBCs were identified on 5 (10%), and very mild toxic change was identified on 2 (4%). Correlation coefficient of the neutrophil counts was 0.96. Analysis revealed a slight bias between the automated and manual neutrophil counts (mean ± SD difference, −0.43 × 103/μL ± 1.10 × 103/μL)

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—In this series of patients, neutrophil count correlation was very good. Clinically relevant abnormalities were found on 20% of the blood smears. An automated CBC appears to be accurate for neutrophil counts, but a microscopic examination of the corresponding blood smear is still recommended; further studies are needed to determine whether the detection or frequency of these abnormalities would differ dependent on chemotherapy protocol, neoplastic disease, and decision thresholds used by the oncologist in the ordering of a CBC without a blood smear evaluation.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective

To evaluate a method for detecting thiazole orange-positive (TO+, reticulated) platelets in equine blood, using flow cytometry.

Animals

16 healthy, equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV)-negative horses and ponies; 9 thrombocytopenic, ElAV-positive horses and ponies; and 2 thrombocytopenic, ElAV-negative horses.

Procedure

Blood from healthy and thrombocytopenic horses was collected by jugular venipuncture. Appropriate sample requirement and incubation time for the assay were evaluated, using blood anticoagulated with EDTA or sodium citrate, or platelet-rich plasma in sodium citrate. The sample of blood or platelet-rich plasma was incubated with thiazole orange, and flow cytometric analysis was performed. Percentage of circulating TO+ platelets was determined from fluorescence (FL-1) logarithmic histograms.

Results

Healthy ponies (n = 9) had 1.28 to 2.83% (mean ± SD, 2.03 ± 0.50%) and horses (n = 7) had 0.9 to 3.44% (2.12 ± 1.14%) TO+ platelets in circulation. Thrombocytopenic ponies (n = 7) had 11.14 to 48.41 % (26.51 ± 11.99%) and thrombocytopenic horses (n = 4) had 2.33 to 8.52% (6.19 ± 2.68%) TO+ platelets in circulation. Mean platelet counts for the thrombocytopenic ponies and horses were 24,400 ± 20,500 and 39,300 ± 13,500 platelets/μl, respectively (reference range, 94,000 to 232,000 platelets/μl).

Conclusion

Thiazole orange-positive platelets can be detected in equine blood and percentages of TO+ platelets are increased in thrombocytopenic horses.

Clinical Relevance

Enumeration of TO+ platelets may prove to be a helpful noninvasive clinical measurement of bone marrow platelet production and aid in the assessment of platelet kinetics in thrombocytopenic horses. (Am J Vet Res 1997;58:1092–1096)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research