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  • Author or Editor: Carly A. Patterson x
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Flash glucose monitoring systems (FGMS) are frequently used for interstitial glucose monitoring in dogs with diabetes mellitus and are typically placed between the scapulae. We aimed to evaluate the variability between glucose measurements from FGMS placed in 2 locations (between the scapulae and over the hip) in non-diabetic dogs during rapidly induced hypoglycemia.


24 apparently healthy colony dogs that were subjects in a teaching laboratory.


Prospective interventional study. FGMS sensors (FreeStyle Libre 14-day system) were placed between the scapulae and over the hip of all dogs. Regular insulin was administered (0.3 u/kg IV) and subsequent hypoglycemia was corrected. Before insulin administration and every 10 minutes over 90 minutes, interstitial glucose was recorded from both locations, and blood glucose was measured with a point-of-care blood glucose monitor (AlphaTRAK 2).


There was a constant bias of 5.6 mg/dL (95% limits of agreement: −26.3 to 37.5 mg/dL) between locations, but the proportional bias was not apparent. There was a correlation between FGMS locations (r = 0.731, P = < .001). Sensor site B was clinically accurate with 100% of paired samples within Parkes error grid zones A (83%) and B (17%) but did not meet the criteria for analytical accuracy.


In this model of induced hypoglycemia in healthy dogs, variation between measurements from FGMS locations was unlikely to have affected the clinical outcome. Placement of FGMS over the hip may be an acceptable alternative to placement between the scapulae, but the utility in hyperglycemic dogs is unknown.

Open access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research


OBJECTIVE To determine the impact of processing delay, temperature, and transport tube type on results of quantitative bacterial culture (QBC) of canine urine.

DESIGN Diagnostic test evaluation.

SAMPLE 60 mL of pooled urine from 4 dogs, divided into six 10-mL aliquots.

PROCEDURES Urine aliquots were spiked with bacteria from 1 of 6 independent Escherichia coli cultures to achieve a target bacterial concentration of 105 CFUs/mL. One milliliter from each aliquot was transferred into 5 silicone-coated clot tubes (SCTs) and 5 urine transport tubes (UTTs). Samples were stored at 4°C (39°F) and 25°C (77°F) for 0, 8, and 24 hours, and then standard QBCs were performed.

RESULTS Median bacterial concentration for urine samples stored in a UTT for 24 hours at 4°C was lower than that for samples stored in an SCT under the same conditions. Conversely, a substantial decrease in median bacterial concentration was identified for samples stored for 24 hours in an SCT at 25°C, compared with the median concentration for samples stored in a UTT under the same conditions. Median bacterial concentration in samples stored in an SCT at 25°C for 24 hours (275 CFUs/mL) was less than the cutoff typically used to define clinically important bacteriuria by use of urine samples obtained via cystocentesis (ie, > 1,000 CFUs/mL).

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Canine urine samples submitted for immediate QBC should be transported in plain sterile tubes such as SCTs. When prolonged (24-hour) storage at room temperature is anticipated, urine samples should be transported in UTTs.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association