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  • Author or Editor: Carlos O. Rodriguez x
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OBJECTIVE To assess the in vitro effects of doxorubicin and tetrathiomolybdate (TM) on cells from a canine hemangiosarcoma cell line.

SAMPLE Cultured cells from the canine hemangiosarcoma–derived cell line DEN-HSA.

PROCEDURES Cells were treated with TM (0 to 1.5μM), doxorubicin (0 to 5μM), or both with or without 24 hours of pretreatment with ascorbic acid (750μM). Degree of cellular cytotoxicity was measured with a colorimetric assay. Long-term growth inhibition was assessed with a 10-day colony-formation assay. Induction of apoptosis was quantitated by fluorometric assessment of caspase-3 and −7 activation. Formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) was also detected fluorometrically.

RESULTS Exposure of cells to the combination of TM and doxorubicin resulted in a greater decrease in proliferation and clonogenic survival rates than exposure to each drug alone. This treatment combination increased ROS formation and apoptosis to a greater extent than did doxorubicin or TM alone. Ascorbic acid inhibited both TM-induced ROS formation and apoptosis.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results suggested that the enhancement in cytotoxic effects observed with DEN-HSA cell exposure to the combination of doxorubicin and TM was achieved through an increase in ROS production. These findings provide a rationale for a clinical trial of this treatment combination in dogs with hemangiosarcoma.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research


Objective—To develop a simple extractionless method for detection of rosiglitazone in canine plasma and test the method in a pharmacokinetic study after oral administration of rosiglitazone in dogs.

Animals—3 client-owned dogs with cancer.

Procedures—High-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry was performed on canine plasma. The 3 dogs with cancer in the pharmacokinetic study were assessed via physical examination and clinicopathologic evaluation and considered otherwise healthy. Food was withheld for 12 hours, and dogs were administered a single dose (4 mg/m2) of rosiglitazone. Plasma was collected at various times, processed, and analyzed for rosiglitazone.

Results—The developed method was robust and detected a minimum of 0.3 ng of rosiglitazone/mL. Mean ± SD maximum plasma concentration was 205.2 ± 79.1 ng/mL, which occurred at 3 ± 1 hours, and mean ± SD elimination half-life was 1.4 ± 0.4 hours. The area under the plasma rosiglitazone concentration-versus-time curve varied widely among the 3 dogs (mean ± SD, 652.2 ± 351.3 ng/h/mL).

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—A simple extractionless method for detection of rosiglitazone in canine plasma was developed and was validated with excellent sensitivity, accuracy, precision, and recovery. The method enabled unambiguous evaluation and quantitation of rosiglitazone in canine plasma. This method will be useful for pharmacokinetic, bioavailability, or drug-drug interaction studies. Oral rosiglitazone administration was well tolerated in the dogs.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research


OBJECTIVE To determine survival time and metastatic rate for dogs with early-stage anal sac adenocarcinoma (ASACA) treated with surgery alone and assess whether specific clinical, pathological, or immunohistochemical factors were predictive of outcome for those dogs.

DESIGN Retrospective case series.

ANIMALS 34 dogs with early-stage, nonmetastatic ASACA that were treated with surgery only.

PROCEDURES Medical record databases of 2 referral hospitals were searched to identify dogs examined between 2002 and 2013 that had a diagnosis of nonmetastatic ASACA that was < 3.2 cm at its largest diameter. Only dogs that received surgical treatment alone were included in the study. For each dog, information extracted from the medical record included signalment, clinical and diagnostic test findings, tumor characteristics, and outcome. When available, archived tumor specimens were histologically reviewed and tumor characteristics were described; Ki-67 and E-cadherin expressions were evaluated by use of immunohistochemical methods. Clinical, pathological, and immunohistochemical factors were assessed for associations with survival time and tumor recurrence and metastasis rates.

RESULTS Median survival time was 1,237 days. Seven dogs had tumor recurrence and 9 dogs developed metastatic disease at a median of 354 and 589 days, respectively, after primary tumor removal. Cellular pleomorphism was positively associated with development of metastatic disease. No other factors evaluated were associated with outcome.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results indicated dogs with early-stage nonmetastatic ASACA generally had a favorable outcome following surgical removal of the primary tumor alone. Routine rectal examination may be a simple and useful method for detection of dogs with early-stage ASACA.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association


Objective—To determine clinical activity and toxic effects of ifosfamide when used to treat cats with vaccine-associated sarcoma (VAS).

Animals—27 cats with a nonresectable, recurrent, or metastatic VAS.

Procedure—Each cat received ifosfamide (900 mg/m2 of body surface area) as an IV infusion during a 30-minute period. Diuresis by infusion of saline (0.9% NaCl) solution and administration of mesna were used to prevent urothelial toxicosis. Treatments were administered every 3 weeks, and tumor response was assessed after the second treatment. All ifos-famide-associated toxic effects were graded in accordance with predetermined criteria.

Results—61 treatments were administered to 27 cats (median, 2 treatments/cat; range, 1 to 4 treat-ments/cat). After ifosfamide treatment, 1 cat had a complete response and 10 had partial responses for an overall response rate of 11 of 27 (41%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 25% to 59%). Responses lasted from 21 to 133 days (median, 70 days; 95% CI, 60 to 113 days). The acute dose-limiting toxicosis was neutropenia, which was detected 5 to 28 days (median, 7 days) after treatment. Median nadir neutrophil count was 1,600 cells/μL (range, 200 to 5,382 cells/μL). Nine (33%) cats had adverse gastrointestinal effects (primarily salivation during the ifosfamide infusion and inappetence after treatment). Two cats were euthanatized because of severe nephrotoxicosis, and 1 cat developed pulmonary edema during diuresis.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Ifosfamide has antitumor activity against VAS in cats and is tolerated well by most cats. Ifosfamide should be evaluated as an adjuvant treatment for cats with VAS.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research


OBJECTIVE To evaluate effects of substituting mitoxantrone for doxorubicin in a cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone (CHOP) chemotherapeutic protocol for first-line treatment of dogs with multicentric intermediate- to large-cell lymphoma.

DESIGN Retrospective cohort study.

ANIMALS 44 dogs treated with cyclophosphamide, mitoxantrone, vincristine, and prednisone (CMOP) and 51 dogs treated with CHOP at 12 referral institutions.

PROCEDURES Medical records were reviewed to determine response to treatment, progression-free survival time, and overall survival time. For dogs treated with CMOP, adverse events were also recorded.

RESULTS All 44 (100%) dogs treated with CMOP and 37 of 38 (97.4%) dogs treated with CHOP had a complete or partial response. Median progression-free survival time for dogs treated with CMOP was 165 days (95% confidence interval [CI], 143 to 187 days), and median overall survival time was 234 days (95% CI, 165 to 303 days). For dogs treated with CHOP, median progression-free survival time was 208 days (95% CI, 122 to 294 days), and median overall survival time was 348 days (95% CI, 287 to 409 days). Progression-free and overall survival times were not significantly different between groups. Overall, 9 of the 44 (20%) dogs treated with CMOP had adverse events likely or probably related to mitoxantrone, but all of these adverse events were mild.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results suggested that mitoxantrone may be a reasonable substitution in a CHOP protocol for treatment of dogs with multicentric intermediate- to large-cell lymphoma when doxorubicin is contraindicated.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association


Objective—To determine outcome of dogs with presumed primary hepatic lymphoma treated with various multiagent, doxorubicin-based chemotherapeutic protocols and identify factors associated with prognosis.

Design—Retrospective case series.

Animals—18 dogs with presumed primary hepatic lymphoma.

Procedures—Medical records were reviewed for information on signalment, treatment, and outcome.

Results—8 dogs had a complete remission (CR), with a median remission duration of 120 days. Dogs with leukocytosis, neutrophilia, hypoalbuminemia, hyperbilirubinemia, or a combination of hypoalbuminemia and hyperbilirubinemia were less likely to achieve a CR. Overall median survival time (MST) was 63 days (range, 2 to 402 days). In a multivariate analysis, response to treatment and serum albumin concentration were associated with MST. Dogs that did not achieve a CR had a significantly shorter MST than did dogs that did achieve a CR (13 vs 283 days, respectively). Dogs with serum albumin concentration < 2.5 g/dL at the time treatment was initiated had a significantly shorter MST than did dogs with serum albumin concentration within reference limits (10 vs 128 days, respectively). There was also a positive correlation between serum albumin concentration and survival time (r = 0.74).

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggested that dogs with primary hepatic lymphoma that underwent chemotherapy had a poor prognosis, with a low response rate. Dogs that responded to treatment had a better prognosis, and dogs with hypoalbuminemia had a poorer prognosis.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association



3 dogs with retroperitoneal masses (2 renal and 1 located near the diaphragm) were treated by percutaneous microwave ablation (MWA).


Dogs between 11 and 13 years of age weighing between 13.7 and 43.8 kg had either a renal mass (n = 2) or a mass located in the caudodorsal aspect of the retroperitoneal space near the right side of the diaphragm (1). Cytology revealed that one of the renal masses and the mass located near the diaphragm were malignant neoplasias. Findings on cytologic evaluation of a sample of the other renal mass was nondiagnostic. Maximum mass diameters ranged between 1.4 and 2.5 cm.


All dogs were treated by percutaneous MWA. Probes were directed into tumors by use of ultrasound and CT guidance, and microwave energy was applied to each mass. Findings on imaging of each mass following MWA was consistent with successful treatment. No intraprocedural or major postprocedural complications occurred, and all dogs were discharged from the hospital within 3 days of treatment. Two dogs died at 3 and 21 months after MWA with no known local recurrence; 1 dog was still alive 64 months after treatment.


Although the indications for MWA in the treatment of neoplasia in companion animals are limited, the outcomes of dogs in the present report provided preliminary evidence that percutaneous MWA can be safely used to effectively treat retroperitoneal neoplasia. This procedure was successfully performed with image guidance in all 3 dogs.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association



To describe the procedure of prostatic artery embolization (PAE) in dogs with prostatic carcinoma and to evaluate the short-term outcome for treated dogs.


20 client-owned dogs with prostatic carcinomas between May 2014 and July 2017.


In this prospective cohort study, dogs with carcinoma of the prostate underwent PAE with fluoroscopic guidance. Before and after PAE, dogs underwent CT and ultrasonographic examinations of the prostate, and each owner completed a questionnaire about the dog's clinical signs. Results for before versus after PAE were compared.


Prostatic artery embolization was successfully performed in all 20 dogs. Tenesmus, stranguria, and lethargy were significantly less common 30 days after PAE (n = 2, 1, and 0 dogs, respectively), compared with before PAE (9, 10, and 6 dogs, respectively). Median prostatic volume was significantly less 30 days after PAE (14.8 cm3; range, 0.4 to 48.1 cm3; interquartile [25th to 75th percentile] range, 6.7 to 19.5 cm3), compared with before PAE (21.7 cm3; range, 2.9 to 77.7 cm3; interquartile range, 11.0 to 35.1 cm3). All dogs had a reduction in prostatic volume after PAE, with a median prostatic volume loss of 39.4% (95% CI, 20.3% to 59.3%).


Prostatic artery embolization was associated with decreased prostate volume and improved clinical signs in this cohort. The short-term response to PAE appears promising, and evaluation of the long-term impact on survival time is needed.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association