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  • Author or Editor: Carla S. Sommardahl x
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Abstract

OBJECTIVE To determine the pharmacokinetics of chloramphenicol base after PO administration at a dose of SO mg/kg (22.7 mg/lb) in adult horses from which food was not withheld.

DESIGN Prospective crossover study.

ANIMALS 5 adult mares.

PROCEDURES Chloramphenicol base (SO mg/kg) was administered PO to each horse, and blood samples were collected prior to administration (0 minutes) and at 5, 10, 15, and 30 minutes and 1, 2, 4, 8, and 12 hours thereafter. Following a washout period, chloramphenicol sodium succinate (25 mg/kg [11.4 mg/lb]) was administered IV to each horse, and blood samples were collected prior to administration (0 minutes) and at 3, 5, 10, 15, 30, and 45 minutes and 1, 2, 4, and 8 hours thereafter.

RESULTS In horses, plasma half-life, volume of distribution at steady state, clearance, and area under the plasma concentration-time curve for chloramphenicol after IV administration ranged from 0.65 to 1.20 hours, 0.51 to 0.78 L/kg, 0.78 to 1.22 L/h/kg, and 20.5 to 32.1 h·μg/mL, respectively. The elimination half-life, time to maximum plasma concentration, maximum plasma concentration, and area under the plasma concentration-time curve after PO administration ranged from 1.7 to 7.4 hours, 0.25 to 2.00 hours, 1.52 to 5.45 μg/mL, and 10.3 to 21.6 h·μg/mL, respectively. Mean ± SD chloramphenicol bioavailability was 28 ± 10% and terminal half-life was 2.85 ± 1.32 hours following PO administration.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Given that the maximum plasma chloramphenicol concentration in this study was lower than previously reported values, it is recommended to determine the drug's MIC for target bacteria before administration of chloramphenicol in adult horses.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To determine the effects of a 24-hour infusion of an isotonic electrolyte replacement fluid (IERF) on weight, serum and urine electrolyte concentrations, and other clinicopathologic variables in healthy neonatal foals.

Animals—4 healthy 4-day-old foals.

Design—Prospective study.

Procedure—An IERF was administered to each foal at an estimated rate of 80 mL/kg/d (36.4 mL/lb/d) for 24 hours. Body weight was measured before and after the infusion period. Urine was collected via catheter during 4-hour periods; blood samples were collected at 4-hour intervals. Variables including urine production; urine and serum osmolalities; sodium, potassium, and chloride concentrations in urine and serum; urine and serum creatinine concentrations; urine osmolality-to-serum osmolality ratio (OsmR); transtubular potassium gradient (TTKG); and percentage creatinine clearance (Crcl) of electrolytes were recorded at 0, 4, 8, 12, 16, 20, and 24 hours during the infusion period. Immediately after the study period, net fluid and whole-body electrolyte changes from baseline values were calculated.

Results—Compared with baseline values, urine and serum sodium and chloride serum concentrations, urine and serum osmolalities, OsmR, and percentage Crcl of sodium and chloride were significantly increased at various time points during the infusion; urine production did not change significantly. After 24 hours, weight, TTKG, serum creatinine concentration, and whole-body potassium had significantly decreased from baseline values.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest that administration of an IERF containing a physiologic concentration of sodium may not be appropriate for use in neonatal foals that require maintenance fluid therapy. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2005;227:1123–1129)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Case Description—A 12-year-old 500-kg (1,100-lb) American Quarter Horse mare was evaluated because of chronic mucopurulent, bloody discharge from the left nostril, inspiratory dyspnea, and respiratory noise.

Clinical Findings—The horse had severe inspiratory dyspnea and stertorous respiration with no airflow from the left nostril. A temporary tracheostomy was performed. Endoscopy revealed a tan mass protruding from the left middle nasal meatus into the left common nasal meatus; it extended caudally into the nasopharynx and around the caudal edge of the nasal septum into the right nasal cavity. Radiographically, a soft tissue opacity was evident in most of the left nasal cavity and left paranasal sinuses. Cytologic examination of mass tissue revealed evidence of pyogranulomatous rhinitis; thickly encapsulated, budding yeast typical of Cryptococcus neoformans were detected.

Treatment and Outcome—While the horse was sedated and in a standing position, the fungal granuloma was removed from the paranasal sinuses. Treatment with fluconazole (5 mg/kg [2.27 mg/lb], PO, q 24 h for 4 weeks) was initiated; enilconazole (50 mL of a 10% solution) was instilled into the paranasal sinuses every other day (7 lavages). Six weeks after surgery, infection had not recurred and epithelialization appeared normal in the left paranasal sinuses.

Clinical Relevance—In horses with cryptococcosis of the paranasal sinuses, surgical removal of granulomatous lesions and systemic and topical administrations of antifungal drugs may be curative. Successful surgery may be performed in standing horses. Concommitant removal of a large portion of the conchae allows follow-up rhinoscopic evaluation of the paranasal sinuses.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate glucose and lipid metabolism in healthy adult horses administered levothyroxine sodium (L-T4).

Animals—12 healthy adult mares.

Procedure—8 horses received an incrementally increasing dosage of L-T4 (24, 48, 72, or 96 mg of L-T4/d) for weeks 1 to 8. Each dose was provided between 7 AM and 8 AM in the morning grain meal for 2 weeks. Four additional horses remained untreated. Serum concentrations of nonesterified fatty acids, triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (TC), and very-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) were measured and composition of VLDL examined in samples obtained between 8 AM and 9 AM at weeks 0, 2, 4, 6, and 8. Glucose dynamics were assessed by use of a combined IV glucose-insulin tolerance test (IVGITT) conducted before and at the end of the 8-week treatment period. Data for each combined IVGITT were interpreted by use of the minimal model.

Results—Plasma TG, TC, and VLDL concentrations significantly decreased over time in treated horses. At the completion of the 8-week treatment period, mean plasma VLDL concentration was 46% of the mean value for week 0 in treated horses. Insulin sensitivity significantly increased (> 2-fold) in treated horses, but glucose effectiveness and net insulin response were not affected. Levothyroxine sodium significantly increased the rate of insulin disposal.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Administration of L-T4 decreases blood lipid concentrations, improves insulin sensitivity, and increases insulin disposal in horses. Levothyroxine sodium may have potential as a treatment for horses with reduced insulin sensitivity. (Am J Vet Res 2005;66:1032–1038)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Case Description—A 3-day-old 9.5-kg (21-lb) female alpaca cria was examined because of lethargy and anorexia.

Clinical Findings—Physical examination revealed hyperthermia, muscle fasciculations, and tremors of the head. Seizures were also observed, which indicated CNS dysfunction. Hyperosmolar syndrome (HOS) was diagnosed on the basis of hyperglycemia, hypernatremia, azotemia, high plasma osmolarity, and metabolic acidosis.

Treatment and Outcome—A constant rate infusion of regular insulin was administered with hypo-osmolar fluids to treat HOS, and blood glucose and sodium concentrations were successfully lowered. Neurologic deficits resolved with treatment, and the cria was discharged 11 days after admission.

Clinical Relevance—Administration of insulin as a bolus in addition to hypo-osmolar fluids has been advocated in the management of neonatal camelids with HOS. Administration of regular insulin via a constant rate IV infusion was used to successfully manage a neonatal camelid with HOS. This form of insulin administration may allow more control of glucose kinetics in these patients.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To determine the effects of levothyroxine sodium (L-T4) on serum concentrations of thyroid gland hormones and responses to injections of thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) in euthyroid horses.

Animals—12 healthy adult mares.

Procedure—8 horses received an incrementally increasing dosage of L-T4 (24, 48, 72, or 96 mg of L-T4/d) for weeks 1 to 8. Each dose was provided for 2 weeks. Four additional horses remained untreated. Serum concentrations of total triiodothyronine (tT3), total thyroxine (tT4), free T3 (fT3), free T4 (fT4), and thyroid- stimulating hormone (TSH) were measured in samples obtained at weeks 0, 2, 4, 6, and 8; 1.2 mg of TRH was then administered IV, and serum concentrations of thyroid gland hormones were measured 2 and 4 hours after injection. Serum reverse T3 (rT3) concentration was also measured in the samples collected at weeks 0 and 8.

Results—Treated horses lost a significant amount of weight (median, 19 kg). Significant treatment-by-time effects were detected for serum tT3, tT4, fT3, fT4, and TSH concentrations, and serum tT4 concentrations were positively correlated ( r, 0.95) with time (and therefore dosage) in treated horses. Mean ± SD serum rT3 concentration significantly increased in treated horses (3.06 ± 0.51 nmol/L for week 8 vs 0.74 ± 0.22 nmol/L for week 0). Serum tT3, tT4, fT3, and TSH concentrations in response to TRH injections differed significantly between treated and untreated horses.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Administration of levothyroxine sodium increased serum tT4 concentrations and blunted responses to TRH injection in healthy euthyroid horses. (Am J Vet Res 2005;66:1025–1031)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research