Objective—To test the hypothesis that feline calcium
oxalate uroliths are intrinsically more resistant to comminution
via shock wave lithotripsy (SWL) than canine
calcium oxalate uroliths through comparison of the
fragility of canine and feline uroliths in a quantitative
in vitro test system.
Sample Population—Calcium oxalate uroliths (previously
obtained from dogs and cats) were matched by
size and mineral composition to create 7 pairs of
uroliths (1 canine and 1 feline urolith/pair).
Procedure—Uroliths were treated in vitro with 100
shock waves (20 kV; 1 Hz) by use of an electrohydraulic
lithotripter. Urolith fragmentation was quantitatively
assessed via determination of the percentage
increase in projected area (calculated from the digital
image area of each urolith before and after SWL).
Results—After SWL, canine uroliths (n = 7) fragmented
to produce a mean ± SD increase in image area of 238
± 104%, whereas feline uroliths (7) underwent significantly
less fragmentation (mean image area increase of
78 ± 97%). The post-SWL increase in fragment image
area in 4 of 7 feline uroliths was < 50%, whereas it was
> 150% in 6 of 7 canine uroliths.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results indicate
that feline calcium oxalate uroliths are less susceptible
to fragmentation via SWL than canine calcium oxalate
uroliths. In some cats, SWL may not be efficacious for
fragmentation of calcium oxalate nephroliths or
ureteroliths because the high numbers of shock waves
required to adequately fragment the uroliths may cause
renal injury. (Am J Vet Res 2005;66:1651–1654)
Objective—To determine incidence of animal bite injuries among humans in North Carolina by use of statewide emergency department visit data; to evaluate incidence rates on the basis of age, sex, urbanicity, biting species, and month for selected species; and to characterize bite-related emergency department visits.
Design—Retrospective cohort and cross-sectional study.
Sample—Records of 38,971 incident animal bite–related emergency department visits in North Carolina from 2008 to 2010.
Procedures—Emergency department visits were selected for inclusion by means of external-cause-of-injury codes assigned with an international coding system and keyword searches of chief complaint and triage notes. Rates were calculated with denominators obtained from census data. Cross-sectional analysis of incident emergency department visits was performed.
Results—By the age of 10, a child in North Carolina had a 1 in 50 risk of dog bite injury requiring an emergency department visit. Incidence rates for dog bites were highest for children ≤ 14 years of age, whereas the incidence rate for cat bites and scratches was highest among individuals > 79 years of age. Lifetime risk of cat bite or scratch injury requiring an emergency department visit was 1 in 60 for the population studied. Rabies postexposure prophylaxis was administered during 1,664 of 38,971 (4.3%) incident visits.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Emergency department visit surveillance data were used to monitor species-specific bite incidence statewide and in various subpopulations. Emergency department surveillance data may be particularly useful to public health veterinarians. Results may inform and renew interest in targeted animal bite prevention efforts.
To establish a pathoepidemiological model to evaluate the role of SARS-CoV-2 infection in the first 10 companion animals that died while infected with SARS-CoV-2 in the US.
10 cats and dogs that tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 and died or were euthanized in the US between March 2020 and January 2021.
A standardized algorithm was developed to direct case investigations, determine the necessity of certain diagnostic procedures, and evaluate the role, if any, that SARS-CoV-2 infection played in the animals’ course of disease and death. Using clinical and diagnostic information collected by state animal health officials, state public health veterinarians, and other state and local partners, this algorithm was applied to each animal case.
SARS-CoV-2 was an incidental finding in 8 animals, was suspected to have contributed to the severity of clinical signs leading to euthanasia in 1 dog, and was the primary reason for death for 1 cat.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE
This report provides the global community with a standardized process for directing case investigations, determining the necessity of certain diagnostic procedures, and determining the clinical significance of SARS-CoV-2 infections in animals with fatal outcomes and provides evidence that SARS-CoV-2 can, in rare circumstances, cause or contribute to death in pets.