Search Results

You are looking at 1 - 10 of 10 items for

  • Author or Editor: Carl S. Ribble x
  • Refine by Access: All Content x
Clear All Modify Search

Abstract

Objective—To compare health performance during the first 28 days in the feedlot for vaccinated or conditioned feeder calves sold through special auctions in Ontario with health performance for calves sold through conventional auctions in the province.

Design—Cohort study.

Animals—12,313 calves sold through conventional and special auctions at the Keady Livestock Market during the fall of 1999 and 2000.

Procedure—Buyers of calf groups were approached at the auction market or contacted by telephone and asked to record the number of calves requiring treatment for bovine respiratory tract disease (BRD) during the first 28 days after purchase.

Results—211 calf groups (≥ 20 calves/group) were followed up for 28 days after purchase. Multivariate logistic analysis indicated that vaccinated calves purchased through special auctions were 0.68 (95% confidence interval, 0.50 to 0.93) times as likely to receive treatment for BRD as were calves purchased at conventional auctions and that conditioned calves were 0.22 (95% confidence interval, 0.12 to 0.38) times as likely to receive treatment. Groups that received antimicrobials by injection on arrival at the feedlot were 0.64 (95% confidence interval, 0.43 to 0.96) times as likely to be treated as were groups that did not.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest that vaccinated and conditioned calves were less likely to receive treatment for BRD during the first 28 days in the feedlot; however, there was no difference in mortality rate. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2003;223: 677–683)

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objectives—To determine perceptions of veterinary technical and professional skills among veterinary students and recent graduates.

Design—Cross-sectional study.

Sample Population—281 students and 142 recent graduates from the Ontario Veterinary College.

Procedure—A survey was designed and administered to first- through fourth-year students and veterinarians who had graduated either 1 or 6 years before survey administration.

Results—Overall response rate was 70%. Learning about technical and professional skills was highly valued. Most participants felt they had not received instruction about professional skills, but those who had felt more competent about them. Perceptions of competence increased slightly with increased comfort discussing emotional veterinary issues with instructors. Neither gender nor increased age was related to increased feelings of competence. Almost all fourth-year students felt competent and comfortable about examining an animal with the client present, assessing suffering, diagnosing parvovirus infection, performing surgery, and working as group members. However, many did not feel competent or comfortable about delivering bad news, setting time limits yet providing quality service, helping clients with limited funds make treatment decisions, dealing with demanding people, and euthanasia. Feelings of competence and comfort were closely related but were not identical.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—In the interests of best preparing entry-level veterinarians, technical and professional skills need to be emphasized in a learning environment where students feel comfortable discussing emotional veterinary issues. A professional skills curriculum addressing underlying selfawareness, communication, and interpersonal issues, as well as procedural matters, would likely increase the proportion of fourth-year students who feel competent and comfortable about professional skills by the end of their undergraduate training. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2001;219:924–931)

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To determine whether vaccinated or conditioned feeder calves sold through special auctions in Ontario commanded a premium, compared with feeder calves sold at conventional auctions, and whether various physical characteristics of the calves were associated with the sale price.

Design—Cross-sectional study.

Animals—14,037 calves sold through conventional and special auctions at the Keady Livestock Market during the fall of 1999 and 2000.

Procedure—Calves were observed as they were sold by lot in the auction ring. Lot characteristics and the price received for each lot were recorded. Multivariate analysis was used to estimate the effect of lot characteristics and sale type on price.

Results—Information was recorded for 2,601 calf lots. Multivariate analysis indicated that various lot characteristics were associated with sale price, with 68% of the variation explained by the model. Overall, lots sold at special auctions received a premium of $0.06/lb (Canadian dollars), compared with lots sold at conventional auctions. However, the premium varied with mean body weight of the lot and year. In addition, frame size, breed, body condition score, uniformity of the lot, weaning status, mean body weight, lot size, sex, year, and sale type were significantly related to sale price.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggested that producers selling calves at special auctions at this market received a premium, compared with producers selling calves at conventional auctions. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2003;223:670–676)

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Objective

To determine seroprevalence of Neospora caninum infection in beef herds and the association between serologic status and rate of abortion, stillbirth, calf mortality, and reproductive failure.

Design

Longitudinal study.

Animals

419 cows from 8 beef herds in central Alberta.

Procedure

1,391 serum samples from a serum bank were analyzed, using ELISA, and results were compared, using logistic regression, with productivity data on individual cows obtained from a database established during a 4-year period.

Results

30% of cows were seropositive at some point during the 4-year period. Risks of abortion (odds ratio [OR], 5.7) and stillbirth (OR, 2.8) in seropositive cows were significantly greater than in seronegative cows. Risks of being culled for any reason (OR, 1.9) or for reproductive failure (OR, 2.5) in seropositive cows were also significantly greater than in seronegative cows. Changes in titer with time in individual cows and a lack of association between serologic status of dam versus daughter suggest that postnatal transmission was possible in these herds. However, horizontal transmission did not appear to play a substantial role in abortions that occurred in these herds.

Clinical Implications

Neosporosis should be investigated as a potential source of economic loss to the beef industry. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 1998;213:685-690)

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Objective

To determine breed, sex, and seasonal predisposition for development of canine parvovirus (CPV) enteritis in dogs.

Design

Retrospective case-control study.

Sample Population

Medical records from 283 dogs with confirmed CPV enteritis and from 834 age-matched control dogs that were healthy or had been admitted with nonenteric illness.

Procedure

Effects of season, breed, sex, and neutering on the risk of developing CPV enteritis were examined by calculation of unadjusted odds ratios and performance of multivariate analysis. Stratified and contingency table analyses were performed to identify interactions and confounding among variables.

Results

Rottweilers, American Pit Bull Terriers, Doberman Pinschers, and German Shepherd Dogs were at increased risk and Toy Poodles and Cocker Spaniels were at decreased risk for developing CPV enteritis, compared with that for mixed-breed dogs. For dogs more than 6 months old, sexually intact males were twice as likely as intact females to develop CPV enteritis. Dogs were 3 times more likely to be admitted with CPV enteritis in July, August, and September, compared with the rest of the year. Dogs were 12.7 times more likely to be admitted with CPV enteritis if they had not been currently vaccinated.

Clinical Implications

Lack of vaccination is a significant risk factor for development of CPV enteritis. Seasonal, sex, and breed predispositions for the development of CPV enteritis also exist. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 1996;208:542–546)

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To describe client and veterinarian perceptions of client-centeredness during euthanasia discussions and assess agreement between measures of these perceptions.

DESIGN

Descriptive study.

SAMPLE

Stratified random sample of 32 companion animal veterinarians in southern Ontario.

PROCEDURES

2 case scenarios (a geriatric dog with worsening arthritis and a cat with inappropriate urination) designed to initiate euthanasia discussions were presented by 2 different undisclosed standardized clients (USCs) to study veterinarian communication during clinical visits. At the end of appointments, the USC's identity was disclosed, and questionnaires to measure veterinarian and client perceptions of client-centeredness were completed. Agreement was assessed by statistical methods.

RESULTS

Data were analyzed from 60 appointments (30/scenario). Of 10 questions, significant agreement was found between veterinarians and USCs for only 1 (extent to which relevant personal and family issues were discussed; κ = 0.43) for the dog scenario and 3 (extent of discussion of respective roles [κ = 0.43], better preparedness of the USC to make a euthanasia decision [κ = 0.42], and discussion of relevant personal and family issues [κ = 0.25]) for the cat scenario. When the USC and veterinarian disagreed, the veterinarian perceived that the client-centeredness components were addressed more thoroughly than did the USC.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Lack of agreement was found between USC and veterinarian perceptions, with USCs perceiving less client-centeredness in euthanasia discussions. This communication gap suggested the need for training of veterinarians in eliciting client perspectives and assessing lifestyle-social information, including client social support systems.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To characterize veterinarian-client communication with undisclosed standardized clients (USCs) during discussions regarding euthanasia of a pet.

Design—Descriptive study.

Sample Population—32 companion animal veterinarians (16 males and 16 females) in southern Ontario.

Procedures—During 2 clinic visits, 2 cases (a geriatric dog with worsening arthritis and a cat with inappropriate urination) designed to stimulate discussion regarding euthanasia of a pet were presented by different USCs (individuals trained to consistently present a particular case to veterinarians without disclosing their identity). Discussions were audio recorded and analyzed by use of the measure of patient-centered communication (MPCC [a tool to assess and score physician communication behaviors]). Veterinarian and client statements were classified by means of 3 patient-centered components: exploring both the disease and the illness experience, understanding the whole person, and finding common ground.

Results—60 usable recorded discussions were obtained (31 veterinarians; 30 discussions/case). Overall, MPCC scores were significantly lower for the geriatric dog case. For both cases, veterinarians scored highest on finding common ground and lowest on exploring both the disease and the illness experience. Lack of exploration of client feelings, ideas, and expectations and the effect of the illness on the animal's function resulted in low scores among veterinarians.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results indicated that the use of USCs and the MPCC are feasible methods for analysis of veterinarian-client communication during companion animal euthanasia discussions. Findings suggested that some veterinarians do not fully explore client concerns or facilitate client involvement in euthanasia decision making.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Summary

A retrospective, epidemiologic field study was performed to determine whether calves that were transported greater distances from the auction market to the feedlot were at significantly higher risk of developing fatal fibrinous pneumonia (shipping fever). The study involved all 45,243 spring-born steer calves that were purchased from auction markets and moved into a large commercial feedlot between September 1 and December 31 over a 4-year period (1985–1988). For all 4 years of the study, the distance calves were transported from the market to the feedlot and their shrinkage or subsequent death loss from fibrinous pneumonia were not correlated. The risk of fatal fibrinous pneumonia for calves arriving from nearby markets was just as high as that for calves transported much greater distances. The results suggested that calves can be purchased from more distant markets without having to discount their price for higher expected death losses. Differences between short and long hauls explained/little, if any, of the variation among truckloads of calves in the risk of fatal fibrinous pneumonia.

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Summary

A retrospective, epidemiologic study was performed to quantify the mixing of calves from various sources at auction markets, and to determine whether mixing at the markets and the risk of fatal fibrinous pneumonia (ffp) at the feedlot were associated. In this study, 32,646 spring-born steer calves that entered a single large feedlot during the fall seasons between 1985 and 1988 were traced back to their originating auction market, and sales tickets were used to measure the number of farm sources that contributed to each truckload of calves. Individual cow/calf producers contributed a median of only 2 calves/truckload arriving at the feedlot in this study. An average truckload of 60 steers comprised calves from as many as 20 to 30 farms. The degree of mixing varied little over time and could not, therefore, be used to explain the large variations in ffp risk during different months and different years of the study. However, variation in the degree of mixing of calves from various sources at the markets evidently was responsible for differences in ffp risk among truckloads assembled by different buyers. When truckloads were grouped by buyer, ffp risk and mean number of calves per source were negatively correlated in 1986 (r = -0.67, P = 0.099), and in 1987 (r = –0.90, P = 0.002). These variables also were negatively correlated in 1988 (r = –0.56), although the correlation was not significant.

The positive linear relationship between mixing of calves in truckloads supplied by different buyers and subsequent ffp risk suggested that veterinarians and feedlot owners should more aggressively observe and treat calves from truckloads that were highly mixed. However, the finding that mixing was constant over time, while ffp risk varied significantly within and between years, indicated other important factors also were responsible for the variation in disease prevalence.

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association