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Objectives—To determine the earliest age that canine tibial plateau angles (TPAs) can be reliably measured and determine whether TPAs change during long bone growth.

Animals—10 Labrador Retrievers and 20 Labrador Retriever-hound crossbreeds.

Procedure—Stifle joints were radiographed every 2 months from 8 weeks of age to radiographic closure of the tibial physes. Four examiners radiographically evaluated TPA, physeal closure status (ie, complete or incomplete) of the proximal and distal tibial physis, and whether anatomic TPA measurement landmarks were sufficiently visible (LSV) or insufficiently visible (LIV) for accurate measuring. Linear regression analysis was performed to detect change in TPAs over time. Mean ages with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were determined for dogs with radiographs classified as LIV and LSV.

Results—TPAs did not change from 90 days of age to physeal closure. Mean age for dogs with radiographs classified as LIV was 70.2 days (95% CI, 68.12 to 72.28 days), with no dog with LIV radiographs over 81 days of age. Mean age for dogs with radiographs classified as LSV was 85.5 days (CI, 76.73 to 94.27 days).

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—TPAs in Labrador Retrievers and Labrador Retriever-hound crossbreeds can be measured accurately after 90 days of age, and earlier attempts to measure result in falsely low TPA measurements. Measuring TPAs in growing dogs may allow earlier detection of premature physeal closures. As more is learned about the role of the TPA in cranial cruciate ligament injury, early treatment may be possible for growing dogs with cruciate ligament injuries and excessive tibial slope. (Am J Vet Res 2004;65:513–518)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research


Objective—To determine relationships between commonly measured pretreatment variables and duration of isolation for unrestricted dismissal after oral administration of iodine 131 (131I) for treatment of hyperthyroidism in cats.

Animals—149 hyperthyroid cats treated with 131I.

Procedure—A dose of 131I (2.9 to 6.04 mCi [1.07 to 2.23 × 108 Bq]) was administered orally to all cats after hyperthyroidism was confirmed by evaluation of serum total thyroxine (T4) concentrations. Forward stepwise regression analysis was used to determine whether pretreatment total T4 concentration, serum creatinine concentration, body weight, age, 131I dose, or concurrent administration of cardiac medication (specifically excluding thyroid suppression drugs) could be used as pretreatment predictors of duration of isolation in a clinical setting. Gamma radiation emission rate at dismissal was < 2.0 mR/h at skin surface over the thyroid region.

Results—Mean ± SD duration of isolation was 16.67 ± 4.42 days (95% confidence interval, 9.2 to 24.1 days). The regression equation for duration of isolation calculated on the basis of dose of 131I (duration of isolation [days] = 3.2 + [2.66 × mCi – 131I dose]) yielded a regression line with a 95% confidence interval of ± 3.3 days; only 15% of the variation was explained.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—A pretreatment estimate for duration of isolation could be determined only from an equation based on the orally administered dose of 131I. These findings suggest that administration of the lowest efficacious dose possible is the dominant factor in reduction of duration of isolation for cats treated with 131I. (Am J Vet Res 2003;64:425–427)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research



To evaluate the utility of apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) and fractional anisotropy (FA) values obtained by diffusion-weighted MRI (DWI) at 3.0 T for differentiating intracranial neoplastic lesions from noninfectious inflammatory lesions (NIILs) in dogs.


54 dogs that met inclusion criteria (ie, had a histologically confirmed intracranial lesion and DWI of the brain performed) with 5 lesion types: meningioma [n = 18], glioma [14], metastatic hemangiosarcoma [3], other metastatic neoplasms [5], and NIIL [14]).


Two observers, who were blinded to the histologic diagnoses, independently determined the mean ADC and FA values for each evaluated intracranial lesion on the basis of 3 circular regions of interest on DWI images. Findings were compared among the 5 lesion types, between all neoplasms combined and NIILs, and between the 5 legion types and previously determined values for corresponding locations for neurologically normal dogs.


The mean ADC and FA values did not differ significantly among the 5 lesion types or between all neoplasms combined and NIILs. However, 35% (14/40) of the neoplastic lesions had an ADC value ≥ 1.443 × 10−3 mm2/s, whereas all NIILs had ADC values < 1.443 × 10−3 mm2/s. Meningiomas and NIILs had FA values that were significantly lower than those for neurologically normal dogs.


In this population of dogs, the FA values for meningiomas and NIILs differed significantly from those previously reported for neurologically normal dogs. In addition, an ADC cutoff value of 1.443 × 10−3 mm2/s appeared to be highly specific for diagnosing neoplastic lesions (vs NIILs), although the sensitivity and accuracy were low.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association


OBJECTIVE To acquire MRI diffusion data (apparent diffusion coefficient [ADC] and fractional anisotropy [FA] values, including separate measures for gray and white matter) at 3.0 T for multiple locations of the brain of neurologically normal dogs.

ANIMALS: 13 neurologically normal dogs recruited from a group of patients undergoing tibial plateau leveling osteotomy.

PROCEDURES: MRI duration ranged from 20 to 30 minutes, including obtaining preliminary images to exclude pathological changes (T2-weighted fluid-attenuated inversion recovery transverse and dorsal images) and diffusion-weighted images.,

RESULTS: Globally, there were significant differences between mean values for gray and white matter in the cerebral lobes and cerebellum for ADC (range of means for gray matter, 0.8349 × 10−3 s/mm2 to 0.9273 × 10−3 s/mm2; range of means for white matter, 0.6897 × 10−3 s/mm2 to 0.7332 × 10−3 s/mm2) and FA (range of means for gray matter, 0.1978 to 0.2364; range of means for white matter, 0.5136 to 0.6144). These values also differed among cerebral lobes. In most areas, a positive correlation was detected between ADC values and patient age but not between FA values and patient age.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Cerebral interlobar and cerebellar diffusion values differed significantly, especially in the gray matter. Information about diffusion values in neurologically normal dogs may be used to diagnose and monitor abnormalities and was the first step in determining the clinical use of diffusion imaging. This information provided an important starting point for the clinical application of diffusion imaging of the canine brain.

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research


Objective—To describe findings of 3.0-T multivoxel proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS) in dogs with inflammatory and neoplastic intracranial disease and to determine the applicability of 1H-MRS for differentiating between inflammatory and neoplastic lesions and between meningiomas and gliomas.

Animals—33 dogs with intracranial disease (19 neoplastic [10 meningioma, 7 glioma, and 2 other] and 14 inflammatory).

Procedures—3.0-T multivoxel 1H-MRS was performed on neoplastic or inflammatory intracranial lesions identified with conventional MRI. N-acetylaspartate (NAA), choline, and creatine concentrations were obtained retrospectively, and metabolite ratios were calculated. Values were compared for metabolites separately, between lesion categories (neoplastic or inflammatory), and between neoplastic lesion types (meningioma or glioma) by means of discriminant analysis and 1-way ANOVA.

Results—The NAA-to-choline ratio was 82.7% (62/75) accurate for differentiating neoplastic from inflammatory intracranial lesions. Adding the NAA-to-creatine ratio or choline-to-creatine ratio did not affect the accuracy of differentiation. Neoplastic lesions had lower NAA concentrations and higher choline concentrations than inflammatory lesions, resulting in a lower NAA-to-choline ratio, lower NAA-to-creatine ratio, and higher choline-to-creatine ratio for neoplasia relative to inflammation. No significant metabolite differences between meningiomas and gliomas were detected.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance1H-MRS was effective for differentiating inflammatory lesions from neoplastic lesions. Metabolite alterations for 1H-MRS in neoplasia and inflammation in dogs were similar to changes described for humans. Use of 1H-MRS provided no additional information for differentiating between meningiomas and gliomas. Proton MRS may be a beneficial adjunct to conventional MRI in patients with high clinical suspicion of inflammatory or neoplastic intracranial lesions.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research


Objective—To identify factors associated with leakage following intestinal anastomosis in dogs and cats.

Design—Retrospective study.

Animals—90 dogs and 25 cats.

Procedure—Medical records of all dogs and cats that underwent intestinal resection and anastomosis between 1991 and 2000 were reviewed, and information on 27 factors was recorded.

Results—Anastomotic leakage was identified in 13 of the 90 dogs but in none of the 25 cats. Preoperative factors significantly associated with development of anastomotic leakage in dogs included preoperative peritonitis, serum albumin concentration, a left shift, and indication for surgery (dogs with intestinal foreign bodies were more likely to have leakage than dogs that underwent surgery for any other cause). Postoperative and case management factors significantly associated with development of leakage included duration of hospitalization, supplemental alimentation, whether the dog ate the day after surgery, blood product administration, and outcome (died vs survived). Discriminant analysis was performed, and dogs with 2 or more of the following factors were predicted to develop anastomotic leakage: preoperative peritonitis, intestinal foreign body, and serum albumin concentration ≤ 2.5 g/dL. The model accurately predicted whether leakage would develop in 67 of 80 (84%) dogs.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest that a variety of factors may be associated with development of intestinal anastomotic leakage in dogs. In particular, dogs with 2 or more of the following risk factors are predicted to be at high risk for developing anastomotic leakage: preoperative peritonitis, intestinal foreign body, and serum albumin concentration ≤ 2.5 g/dL. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2003; 223:73–77)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association



To determine whether morphology of single-mineral urocystoliths and age, sex, or breed data could be applied to facilitate radiographic and clinical urocystolith mineral type prediction, respectively, in dogs.

Sample Population

Database of 2,041 dogs with pure mineral composition urocystoliths.


All uroliths were characterized according to geologic descriptive terminology and by breed, sex, and age of dog at time of sample submission. Summary statistics were used to compare features with specific mineral types. Observed trends were analyzed for statistical relevance between observed and expected frequencies for age, sex, color, size, shape, and surface, using the null hypothesis that differences by urocystolith mineral type did not exist. On the basis of expected breed occurrence derived by equations, the null hypothesis that urocystolith occurrence paralleled canine breed popularity was tested.


Urocystoliths > 10 mm in any dimension were > 92% likely to be magnesium ammonium phosphate hexahydrate (MAP). Smooth, blunt-edged or faceted, and pyramidal urocystoliths were usually MAP. Jackstone shapes were almost always silica. Botryoidal (grape-like clusters) urocystoliths were likely to be oxalates. Breeds with high relative likelihood of urocystoliths included: English Bulldog, Pekingese, Pug, Welsh Corgi, and West Highland White Terrier. Breeds with low relative likelihood of urocystolith production included: German Shepherd Dog, Shar-Pei, and German Shorthaired Pointer. About 94% of urocystoliths produced in females or spayed females were MAP, whereas males and neutered males produced a greater assortment.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance

For pure mineral composition urocystoliths, trends in mineral type among breeds and between sexes can be exploited clinically in the diagnosis and management of urolith-related disease. Size and shape, used in conjunction with age, breed, and sex, can facilitate pure urocystolith mineral type prediction. (Am J Vet Res 1998;59:379–387)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research


Objective—To determine the relationship between surface emission rate of gamma radiation and urine concentration of I131 (urine radioactivity) during the period 7 to 21 days after oral or SC administration of I131 to hyperthyroid cats.

Animals—47 hyperthyroid cats administered I131 PO and 24 hyperthyroid cats administered I131 SC.

Procedure—A dose of I131 (1.78 to 2.04 X 102 MBq [4.8 to 5.5 mCi]) was administered orally. Surface emission at the skin adjacent to the thyroid gland on days 7, 10, 14, 18, and 21 and number of counts/30 s in a urine sample (1 mL, obtained via cystocentesis) on days 7, 14, and 21 after oral administration were measured. Effective half-life (T1/2E) was derived for each point. Surface emission thresholds for maximum urine radioactivity values were established. A dose of I131 (1.48 X 102 MBq [4.0 mCi]) was administered SC. Urine radioactivity and surface emission rates for SC administration were compared with values for oral administration.

Results—The T1/2E for surface emissions and urine radioactivity progressively increased toward values for physical T1/2 over time. The T1/2E for surface emissions was 2.19 to 4.70 days, and T1/2E for urine radioactivity was 2.16 to 3.67 days. Surface emission rates had a clinically useful threshold relationship to maximum urine concentrations of I131.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Surface emission rates for cats administered I131 appeared useful in determining upper limits (threshold) of urine radioactivity and are a valid method to assess the time at which cats can be discharged after I131 administration. (Am J Vet Res 2003;64:1242–1247)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research


Objective—To determine whether objectively applied ultrasonographic interpretive criteria are statistically useful in differentiating among 7 defined categories of diffuse liver disease in dogs and cats.

Sample Population—Ultrasonographic images of 229 dogs and 104 cats.

Procedures—Liver parenchymal or related sonographic criteria established by the authors were retrospectively and independently applied by 3 radiologists who were not aware of patient status or patient laboratory data. Seven histologic or cytologic categories of diffuse (infiltrative but not nodular) liver diseases were jointly established by the authors and included normal liver; inflammation; round-cell neoplasia; non–round-cell infiltrative, prenodular (early) metastatic neoplasia; lipidosis; vacuolar hepatopathy; and other. Liver parenchymal sonographic criteria included parenchymal sound attenuation with increasing depth, comparative organ echogenicity (liver, spleen, and kidneys), diffuse or patchy hyperechoic or hypoechoic echotexture, uniform or coarse echotexture, portal venous clarity, and liver lobe geometry. Related extrahepatic criteria included gallbladder wall thickness, bile duct diameter, amount and character of gallbladder precipitate, nondependent shadowing in the gallbladder, hepatic vein diameter versus caudal vena cava diameter, peritoneal fluid, spleen echotexture (normal vs abnormal [characterized]), and kidney echotexture. Ultrasonographic criteria were statistically compared to the 7 categories of diffuse liver disease in search of clinically exploitable relationships.

Results—Statistical evaluation of the applied ultrasonographic criteria did not yield clinically acceptable accuracy for discrimination among the 7 categories of diffuse liver diseases (including normal liver) in either species.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Criterion-based ultrasonographic appearance was insufficient to discriminate among canine and feline diffuse infiltrative liver diseases.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research


Objective—To identify clinical, laboratory, and ultrasonographic characteristics associated with gallbladder disease and rupture in dogs.

Design—Retrospective case series.

Animals—45 client-owned dogs.

Procedures—Medical records of dogs with histologically confirmed gallbladder disease that had ultrasonographic evaluation were reviewed. Signalment, history, clinical signs, laboratory values, bacteriologic culture of bile, gallbladder status at surgery or necropsy (intact vs ruptured), histopathologic findings, radiographic findings, ultrasonographic findings, and outcome were analyzed.

Results—The most common ultrasonographic findings were echogenic peritoneal fluid, thickened or laminated gallbladder wall, and echogenic reaction in the gallbladder fossa. Eighteen of 45 (40%) dogs had gallbladder rupture. Rupture was associated with histologic evidence of gallbladder necrosis, decreased serosal detail radiographically, and pericholecystic echogenic reaction, pericholecystic echogenic fluid, and generalized echogenic abdominal effusion ultrasonographically. Twenty-one of 45 (47%) dogs had mucocele, and 9 (43%) of those had gallbladder rupture. Eleven of 40 dogs had positive results of bacteriologic culture, and 5 of those had gallbladder rupture. Only 2 dogs had concurrent positive results of bacterial bile culture and gallbladder mucocele. Survival rate was 86% and not significantly related to presurgical bile leakage, positive results of bacterial culture, or mucocele.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Ultrasonographic findings of pericholecystic reaction, localized or generalized echogenic peritoneal fluid, or decreased radiographic peritoneal detail should raise the index of suspicion for gallbladder rupture. Mucocele or bacterial gallbladder infection was the most common concurrent finding in dogs with gallbladder rupture.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association