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  • Author or Editor: C. Wendy Myer x
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To determine whether acepromazine (ACE) and butorphanol (BUT) combination can be used for restraint of dogs during positive-contrast upper gastrointestinal tract (UGIT) examination.


6 healthy dogs.


In a randomized crossover design study, weekly UGIT examinations were performed on each dog for 5 weeks after administration of normal saline solution (0.5 ml), xylazine (1.0 mg/kg of body weight), or a combination of ACE (0.1 mg/kg) and 1 of 3 doses of BUT (0.05, 0.2, 1.0 mg/kg). Gastrointestinal tract emptying time, GI motility, pulse, respiratory rate, and quality of restraint were assessed.


Total gastric emptying time was significantly prolonged by use of an ACE and BUT (0.05 mg/kg) combination. Xylazine and higher dosages of BUT significantly prolonged gastric and intestinal emptying times. All anesthetic protocols significantly decreased motility and facilitated nonmanual restraint. Xylazine and BUT (1.0 mg/kg) significantly decreased pulse and respiratory rate.


The ACE and BUT combination prolonged GI tract emptying times, decreased GI motility, and facilitated nonmanual restraint for duration of the examination. Although GI motility was decreased and total gastric emptying time was prolonged, administration of ACE (0.1 mg/kg) plus BUT (0.05 mg/kg) allowed morphologic examination of the GI tract within 5 hours. Xylazine prolonged GI tract emptying, decreased GI motility, and provided good to excellent initial restraint.

Clinical Relevance

The ACE and BUT combination prohibits functional examination of the GI tract; however, morphologic examination is possible when low dosages of BUT (0.05 mg/kg) are used. (Am J Vet Res 1998;59:1227–1233)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research


Records of 147 dogs with cataracts and that had an ultrasonographic examination of their eyes were reviewed. Ultrasonography was performed, using a real-time mechanical sector scanner (7.5 or 10.0 MHz transducer), after topical anesthesia of the cornea. Vitreous degeneration was diagnosed in 23% of the eyes examined. Retinal detachment was detected in 11% of all eyes, but was detected in 4% of eyes with immature cataracts, 6.5% of eyes with mature cataracts, and 19% of eyes with hypermature cataracts. In 66% of the eyes, the cataract was the only ultrasonographic abnormality found. Vitreous degeneration and retinal detachment were most often observed in eyes with a hypermature cataract, and were uncommon in eyes with an immature cataract. We concluded that ultrasonographic examination can detect abnormalities of the posterior segment when opacity of the anterior segment precludes complete ophthalmoscopic examination and that it is a quick and easy procedure for screening dogs for retinal detachment prior to cataract surgery.

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association