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  • Author or Editor: C. W. Wong x
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Chemotactic locomotion and luminol-dependent chemiluminescence of neutrophils, mitogen-induced lymphocyte blastogenesis, serum cortisol concentration, immunoglobulin quantification, and leukocyte counts were determined to evaluate the effect of a single strenuous exercise in horses. Increased serum cortisol concentration (P < 0.01) and an increased neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (P < 0.05) indicated that horses had been stressed. The chemotactic index and peak chemiluminescence production decreased significantly (P < 0.05 and P < 0.01, respectively) 1 day after exercise. Mitogen-induced blastogenesis of lymphocytes and serum immunoglobulin values remained unchanged in response to exercise. Results of this study indicated that a single bout of exercise may transiently impair neutrophil antimicrobial functions and nonspecific defense mechanisms, but not specific immunity in horses.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research


Objective—To determine and correlate subchondral bone mineral density and overlying cartilage structure and tensile integrity in mature healthy equine stifle (low magnitude loading) and metacarpophalangeal (high magnitude loading) joints.

Animals—8 healthy horses, 2 to 3 years of age.

Procedure—Osteochondral samples were acquired from the medial femoral condyle (FC) and medial trochlear ridge (TR) of the stifle joint and from the dorsal (MC3D) and palmar (MC3P) aspects of the distal medial third metacarpal condyles of the metacarpophalangeal joint. Articular cartilage surface fibrillation (evaluated via India ink staining) and tensile biomechanical properties were determined. The volumetric bone mineral density (vBMD) of the underlying subchondral plate was assessed via dualenergy x-ray absorptiometry.

Results—Cartilage staining (fibrillation), tensile moduli, tensile strength, and vBMD were greater in the MC3D and MC3P locations, compared with the FC and TR locations, whereas tensile strain at failure was less in MC3D and MC3P locations than FC and TR locations. Cartilage tensile moduli correlated positively with vBMD, whereas cartilage staining and tensile strain at failure correlated negatively with vBMD.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—In areas of high joint loading, the subchondral bone had high vBMD and the articular cartilage surface layer had high tensile stiffness but signs of structural wear (fibrillation and low failure strain). The site-dependent variations and relationships in this study support the concept that articular cartilage and subchondral bone normally adapt to physiologic loading in a coordinated way. (Am J Vet Res 2005;66:1823–1829)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research



To review ordering patterns, positivity rates, and outcome data for a subset of consecutive samples submitted for a commercially available, blood-based multicancer early-detection liquid biopsy test for dogs using next-generation sequencing at 1 laboratory.


1,500 consecutively submitted blood samples from client-owned dogs with and without clinical suspicion and/or history of cancer for prospective liquid biopsy testing between December 28, 2021, and June 28, 2022.


We performed a retrospective observational study, reviewing data from 1,500 consecutive clinical samples submitted for liquid biopsy testing. Outcome data were obtained via medical record review, direct communication with the referring clinic, and/or a patient outcome survey through October 16, 2022.


Sixty-four percent (910/1,419) of reportable samples were submitted for cancer screening, 26% (366/1,419) for aid in diagnosis, and 10% (143/1,419) for other indications. The positivity rate was 25.4% (93/366) in aid-in-diagnosis patients and 4.5% (41/910) in screening patients. Outcome data were available for 33% (465/1,401) of patients, and outcomes were classifiable for 428 patients. The relative observed sensitivity was 61.5% (67/109) and specificity was 97.5% (311/319). The positive predictive value was 75.0% (21/28) for screening patients and 97.7% (43/44) for aid-in-diagnosis patients, and the time to diagnostic resolution following a positive result was < 2 weeks in most cases.


Liquid biopsy using next-generation sequencing represents a novel tool for noninvasive detection of cancer in dogs. Real-world clinical performance meets or exceeds expectations established in the test’s clinical validation study.

Open access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association