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Objective

To compare fragment reconstruction and bone plate fixation versus bridging plate fixation for treating highly comminuted (> 4 fragments) femoral fractures in dogs.

Design

Retrospective study.

Animals

35 dogs with highly comminuted fractures of the femur.

Procedure

Medical records of all dogs included in this study were reviewed. Dogs had been treated with fragment reconstruction and bone plate application (n = 20) or major fragment alignment and bridging plate fixation (15). Postoperative and follow-up radiographs were evaluated. Operating and hospitalization times, bone alignment, bone healing, and complications were considered.

Results

There were no differences in hospitalization times, limb alignment, and complications between dogs with fractures treated with fragment reconstruction and dogs with fractures treated with bridging plate fixation. Dogs with fractures treated with bridging plate fixation had shorter operative times and faster times to radiographic evidence of bone healing.

Clinical Implications

Bridging plate fixation is quicker to perform and results in faster healing than fragment reconstruction and bone plate fixation when used to treat comminuted femoral fractures. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 1998;213:1157-1161)

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To compare agreement between 2 pregnancy tests in dairy cattle.

Design—Evaluation study.

Animals—976 and 507 cattle for phases 1 and 2, respectively.

Procedures—Blood samples were collected, and palpation per rectum (PPR) was performed on cattle. Blood samples for the pregnancy-specific protein B (PSPB) ELISA were sent by courier to a commercial laboratory with results returned later. Results of PPR were extracted from herd records. Statistical comparison of results was performed by use of a mixed linear model and N analysis.

Results—Of 571 cattle classified as pregnant by the PSPB ELISA in phase 1, 30 (5%) were nonpregnant by PPR. Mean ± SE adjusted optical density (OD) of cattle classified pregnant by both tests was significantly higher (0.31 ± 0.01), compared with the adjusted OD of cattle classified pregnant by the PSPB ELISA and nonpregnant by PPR (0.22 ± 0.02). Of 255 cows classified pregnant by the PSPB ELISA in phase 2, 31 (12%) were nonpregnant by PPR. Mean ± SE adjusted OD of cattle classified pregnant by both tests was significantly higher (0.26 ± 0.01), compared with the adjusted OD of cattle classified pregnant by the PSPB ELISA and nonpregnant by PPR (0.21 ± 0.01). The N value was 0.82 and 0.81 for phases 1 and 2, respectively.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Good agreement existed between the 2 tests, especially at longer intervals after insemination. Discrepant results appeared to be attributable to a nonviable fetus, embryonic loss, or fetal loss.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

SUMMARY

The reactivity of bovine lymphocytes to 4 species of Brucella was tested in thymidine-uptake assays, using long-term cultured lymphocytes and freshly obtained blood mononuclear cells. Lymphocytes were taken from cows that had been challenge exposed with a virulent strain of B abortus at midgestation. The cows were classified retrospectively as being naturally resistant or susceptible to brucellosis. Lymphocytes taken from these cows had 3 patterns of reactivity with species of Brucella: pattern 1 was defined by reactivity with 4 species (B abortus, B canis, B suis, and B melitensis); pattern 2 was defined by reactivity with all these species, except B melitensis; pattern 3 was defined by reactivity with B abortus and B canis, but not with B suis or B melitensis. There was a statistically significant correlation between susceptibility to brucellosis and expression of lymphocyte cross-reactivity with B suis (P < 0.01) and with B melitensis (P < 0.01).

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Objectives

To predict mortality of horses by use of clinical data from the first day of hospitalization, to determine whether fecal shedding of Salmonella organisms is related to severity of clinical disease, and to determine the impact of fecal shedding of Salmonella organisms on mortality.

Design

Prospective study.

Animals

1,446 hospitalized horses.

Procedure

Medical information was obtained from horses hospitalized in an intensive care unit or isolation facility during a 4.5-year period. A model was created to predict mortality, using covariates determined on the day of admission. Predicted mortality provided a measure of clinical condition. Predicted mortality was compared between horses that were and were not shedding Salmonella organisms in their feces to determine whether shedding was associated with severity of disease. Predicted and observed mortality between horses were also compared to evaluate the association between fecal shedding of Salmonella organisms and mortality.

Results

92 horses were identified as shedding Salmonella organisms. In a multivariable model, 4 variables (heart rate, respiratory rate, rectal temperature, and clinical management) were associated with mortality. A higher predicted probability of death was observed in horses that shed Salmonella krefeld or more than 1 serotype. Relative risk (RR) of mortality was high for horses shedding S typhimurium (RR, 1.94; 95% confidence interval, 1.04 to 3.59) and multiple serotypes (RR, 4.75; 95% confidence interval, 2.29 to 9.84). When the clinical condition (ie, prior predicted probability of death) was taken into consideration, fecal shedding of Salmonella organisms was not significantly associated with mortality.

Clinical Implications

In this horse population, fecal shedding of S krefeld was associated with more severe clinical conditions at the time of admission; however, fecal shedding of Salmonella organisms during hospitalization did not alter predicted mortality. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 1998;213:1162-1166)

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Objective

To compare open reduction and bone plate fixation with closed reduction and external skeletal fixation as treatment for severely comminuted fractures of the tibia. Limb alignment, fracture reduction, operating time, hospitalization time, postoperative care, time to unrestricted activity, bone healing, complications, and number of surgical procedures were considered.

Design

Retrospective case series.

Animals

47 dogs with severely comminuted fractures of the tibia treated with open reduction and bone plate application (22 dogs) or closed reduction and external fixation (25 dogs).

Procedure

Medical records of all dogs included in this study were reviewed. Postoperative and follow-up radiographs were evaluated by 2 independent observers.

Results

Differences were not found in hospitalization time, time to unrestricted activity, or time to earliest radiographic evidence of bone healing between dogs with fractures treated with a bone plate and dogs with fractures treated with an external fixator. Fractures treated with an external fixator had more caudal malalignment, and fractures treated with a bone plate had more valgus malalignment. Malalignments were determined not to be related to clinical problems. Dogs with fractures treated with an external fixator had shorter surgery times and more recheck examinations. Dogs with fractures treated with a bone plate had more complications.

Clinical Implications

Open reduction with bone plate fixation and closed reduction with external fixation were both effective for treatment of comminuted tibial fractures. External fixation was associated with shorter surgery time, but dogs required more extensive postoperative care. Bone plate fixation was associated with more complications. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 1997;211:1008–1012)

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Objective

To describe a technique for closed reduction of and application of a type-II external fixator to comminuted fractures of the radius and tibia in dogs and to evaluate outcome of the technique in a series of client-owned dogs.

Design

Retrospective case series.

Animals

23 dogs that underwent closed reduction of severely comminuted (≥ 5 fragments); mid-diaphyseal radial (n = 9); and tibial (n = 14) fractures and stabilization with a type-II external fixator.

Procedure

Radiographs were made postoperatively and every 4 to 6 weeks until the fixator was removed. The effect of type of fracture (open vs closed), type of pins (threaded vs smooth), and number of fixation pins on surgery time, time between surgery and development of bridging callus, and time between surgery and removal of the fixator was evaluated using one-sided Student's t-tests.

Results

21 fractures healed after a single surgery. Two dogs with radial fractures required a second procedure because of complications. All fractures healed with the original fixation device in place. Mean time between surgery and the development of bridging callus was 11.4 weeks (range, 4 to 22 weeks), and mean time between surgery and fixator removal was 14.7 weeks (range, 4 to 27 weeks). Type of fracture, type of pins, and number of fixation pins did not have a significant effect on surgery time, time to development of bridging callus, or time to fixator removal.

Clinical Implications

Closed reduction and application of a type-II external fixator was an effective method of treating severely comminuted radial and tibial fractures. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 1996;209:1445–1448)

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Summary

Milk samples were collected from all lactating cows on 60 dairies (mean number of cows/dairy, 584; range, 66 to 2,834) randomly selected from 701 California dairies enrolled in the Dairy Herd Improvement Association program. Samples were tested, by means of an elisa, for antibodies against Salmonella serogroup B, C1, and D1 antigens (somatic antigens 01, 4, 6, 7, 9, 12). Blood samples were collected from all cows with positive results and tested for serologic evidence of exposure to salmonellae. Samples for bacteriologic culture (pooled feces from 20 randomly selected calves, swabs of wet areas and feces from calf pens and dairy hospital pens, drag swab sample from wastewater lagoon, and samples of feed components) were also collected from all 60 dairies. Seven (11.7%) of the 60 dairies each had 1 sample that yielded Salmonella organisms (3 S typhimurium, 1 S dublin, 1 nonmotile Group D salmonella, 1 S derby, and 1 S oranienberg). Five of the Salmonella isolates came from the hospital pens and 2 came from calf pens. Thirty-three dairies did not vaccinate cattle against salmonellosis, and of these, 24 (72.7%) had ≥ 1 seropositive cow (titer ≥ 200), and 20 (61 %) had ≥1 persistently seropositive cow (titer for each of 2 blood samples collected ≥ 60 days apart was ≥ 200). Of the 27 dairies that did vaccinate cows against salmonellosis, 24 (89%) had ≥ 1 seropositive cow, and 21 (78%) had ≥ 1 persistently seropositive cow.

We concluded that studies that use of bacteriologic culture of fecal and environmental samples to determine the percentage of dairies with Salmonella-infected cows may underestimate the true percentage.

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Summary

To provide long-term gastric fistulas for collection of third-compartment gastric contents, Janeway mucosal tube gastrostomy was performed, using a gastrointestinal stapling instrument, in 6 castrated adult male llamas. Mean operative time (±sem) was 65 ±4.16 minutes. All llamas survived the 6-week study period. Of the 6 llamas, 5 did not have signs of abdominal pain and returned to preoperative food consumption amounts within 36 hours. One llama had mild intermittent signs of abdominal pain daily for 7 days before returning to preoperative amount of food consumption. All gastrostomies leaked small amounts of gastric contents around indwelling 6- to 8-mm cannulas at the skin surface. Gastric contents did not leak when cannulas were dislodged from gastrostomy stomas. Replacement of cannulas was rapid and easy. Gravity-flow sample collection was best accomplished through 8-mm cannulas. Mean (±sem) weight loss was detected in all llamas (15 ± 3 kg) and was associated with frequent nonfeeding and stress of sample collection.

Gross necropsy findings were unremarkable in 5 of 6 llamas. All mucosal tube gastrostomies were patent, and there was no evidence of peritonitis. One llama had a single fibrous adhesion connecting the operative site with the ascending colon. Histologically, small (2.5- to 15-mm diameter) partial-thickness mucosal erosions identified at the tube gastrostomy-gastric wall junctions may have been associated with indwelling gastric cannulas. The Janeway gastrostomy was generally well tolerated in the llamas and should be considered as a useful long-term fistulation technique.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Summary

Concentration of sulfamethazine was measured in plasma and tissues (fat, liver, kidney, spleen, lungs, and skeletal muscle) of pigs given the drug iv and po. The plasma concentration vs time curve was best described by a 2-compartment model, with a distribution half-life of 0.46 hour and an elimination halflife of 16.9 hours. Bioavailability after oral administration was 85.8 ± 5.3%.

The tissue and plasma sulfamethazine concentration vs time data were used to develop a multicompartment pharmacokinetic model of sulfamethazine disposition in pigs. Plasma and tissue concentrations of sulfamethazine in pigs were measured at various intervals after multiple oral doses of sulfamethazine, and were compared to concentrations predicted by the model. Model predictions for tissue concentrations of sulfamethazine after addition of the drug to feed (110 μg/g of feed for 98 days; 550 μg/g for 30 days) were compared to results from other studies. The model accurately predicted the number of days for sulfamethazine concentration to fall below 0.1 μg of tissue/g (0.1 ppm, the tolerated concentration) in various tissues.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Summary

Chemotactic locomotion and luminol-dependent chemiluminescence of neutrophils, mitogen-induced lymphocyte blastogenesis, serum cortisol concentration, immunoglobulin quantification, and leukocyte counts were determined to evaluate the effect of a single strenuous exercise in horses. Increased serum cortisol concentration (P < 0.01) and an increased neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (P < 0.05) indicated that horses had been stressed. The chemotactic index and peak chemiluminescence production decreased significantly (P < 0.05 and P < 0.01, respectively) 1 day after exercise. Mitogen-induced blastogenesis of lymphocytes and serum immunoglobulin values remained unchanged in response to exercise. Results of this study indicated that a single bout of exercise may transiently impair neutrophil antimicrobial functions and nonspecific defense mechanisms, but not specific immunity in horses.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research