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  • Author or Editor: C. W. Kohn x
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Summary

Plasma insulin concentration of many species has a characteristic early or acute-phase response in the minutes after IV administration of glucose. However, the plasma insulin response of horses soon after the IV administration of glucose has not been examined, whereas the more prolonged response has been evaluated. We examined the plasma insulin and glucose concentration responses of adult mares during the 30 minutes after rapid IV administration of glucose (0.33 g/kg of body weight). Plasma glucose concentration peaked at 664 ± 54 mg/dl within 1 minute of cessation of glucose administration, whereas insulin concentration peaked at 326 ± 24 pmol/L at 2 minutes after the end of glucose administration. Thus, these mares had an acute insulin response, consistent with that observed in other species, including dogs, human beings, and cattle.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

SUMMARY

Exertion has an effect on plasma, serum, and/or urine prostanoid concentrations in many species. We investigated the effect of exercise intensity on plasma prostaglandin concentrations during and after exercise in horses. Six Thoroughbreds completed 4 trials: 3 exercise trials (low-, medium-, and high-speed) and 1 nonexercise (control) trial on a high-speed treadmill. Blood samples were collected from a jugular catheter before, during, and after exercise. The pcv and blood lactate, plasma protein, plasma prostacyclin (6-keto-pgf ), thromboxane B2 (txb 2), and prostaglandin E2 (pge 2) concentrations were measured before, during, and after exercise. Exercise significantly (P = 0.001) increased plasma txb 2 concentration during and after exercise in the low-, medium-, and high-speed trials, although effect of exercise intensity was not detected. Exercise was associated with an increase in pcv and blood lactate and plasma protein concentrations. There was no effect of exercise on plasma 6-keto-pgf concentrations; pge 2 was not detected in plasma from any horse in any trial.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

SUMMARY

The effects of 2 liquid formula diets differing in protein source were evaluated in orphan foals. The response of 7 foals fed a diet containing casein as the protein source, and 6 foals fed a diet containing a combination of whey and casein, was compared with the response in a reference group of 8 mare-raised foals. Orphaned foals were fed 150 kcal/kg of body weight/d, divided into 6 equal feedings of 25 kcal/kg. Formula intake was comparable among the experimental groups, and foals fed the liquid formula diet grew as well as mare-raised foals. There was no difference among groups in mean daily body weight gain, wither height, heart girth, body temperature, pulse, respiration rate, capillary refill time, or skin tenting. Insulin and blood glucose concentrations increased in both groups of foals fed formula diets, returning to prefeeding values within 4 hours. Differences among groups were found for serum alkaline phosphatase, alanine transaminase, cholesterol, creatinine, and glucose values; all other serum chemical values were comparable among groups. Plasma amino acid determinations revealed that arginine and ornithine were significantly lower in foals in both experimental groups than in reference foals, suggesting that arginine may have been the limiting amino acid in these diets. Diarrhea developed in foals in all treatment groups, but in most cases was self-limiting. These results suggest that the protein source of liquid formula diets may be less important in foals than in infants.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To clone and sequence the cDNA for feline preproparathyroid hormone (preproPTH) and to compare that sequence with other known parathyroid hormone (PTH) sequences.

Sample Population—Parathyroid glands from 1 healthy cat.

Procedure—A cDNA library was constructed in λ phage from feline parathyroid gland mRNA and screened with a radiolabeled canine PTH probe. Positive clones were sequenced, and nucleic acid and deduced amino acid sequences were analyzed and compared with known preproPTH and PTH sequences.

Result—Screening of approximately 2 X 105 recombinant plaques revealed 3 that hybridized with the canine PTH probe; 2 clones comprised the complete sequence for feline preproPTH. Feline preproPTH cDNA consisted of a 63-base pair (bp) 5'-untranslated region (UTR), a 348-bp coding region, and a 326-bp 3'-UTR. The coding region encoded a 115-amino acid peptide. Mature feline PTH consisted of 84 amino acids. Amino acid sequence analysis revealed that feline PTH was > 83% identical to canine, bovine, swine, equine, human, and macaque PTH and 69, 71, and 44% identical to mouse, rat, and chicken PTH, respectively. Within the region responsible for hormonal activity (amino acids 1 to 34), feline PTH was > 79% identical to other mammalian PTH sequences and 64% identical to the chicken sequence.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—The amino acid sequence of PTH is conserved among mammalian species. Knowledge of the cDNA sequence for feline PTH may be useful to investigate disturbances of calcium metabolism and alterations in PTH expression in cats. (Am J Vet Res 2002;63:194–197)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research