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The records of 161 German Shepherd Dogs were divided into groups depending on whether there was a radiographic diagnosis of degenerative disk disease (ddd) involving the lumbosacral disk and lumbosacral transitional vertebral segments (tvs) and whether the dogs had cauda equina syndrome (ces). Statistical analysis of the data suggested an association between tvs and ces and an association between ddd and ces. Establishment of confidence intervals revealed the group without either ddd or tvs indicators differed markedly from the other 3 groups of ces relative to the presence of ddd and tvs. There was some overlap in the confidence intervals, but the proportions of ces were higher when ddd and tvs were both evident. This suggests that the important clinical syndrome of ces is at least partially dependent on tvs, which is probably an inherited condition. Because German Shepherd Dogs have a higher frequency of tvs than dogs of other breeds, this partially explains the higher frequency of ces in this breed. Because tvs are probably familial, we suggest the presence of this lesion should be considered in selection of breeding stock. Although it is believed that ddd is partially dependent on the existence of tvs, it is known that ddd can develop in the absence of tvs.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association


To determine the median effective dose (ED50) of propofol required for induction of anesthesia in goats and the frequency of myoclonic activity and apnea associated with propofol administration.


Clinical trial.


28 healthy mature goats.


ED50 was determined by use of the up-and-down method. The first goat was given 4 mg of propofol/kg (1.8 mg/lb) of body weight, IV. Dose was increased by 25% for the next goat if endotracheal intubation was not possible and decreased by 20% if it was. For each subsequent goat, dose was determined on the basis of response of the previous goat. The ED50 was calculated by use of probit analysis. Induction time, frequency and duration of apnea, frequency of myoclonus, and other adverse effects were recorded.


ED50 was determined to be 5.1 mg/kg (2.3 mg/lb). Mean (± SD) induction time was 23.2 ± 4.7 seconds. Apnea was observed in 27 of 28 goats; mean (± SD) duration of apnea was 72.9 ± 38.3 seconds. Dose did not correlate with duration of apnea. Myoclonic activity was observed in 16 of 28 goats; frequency of myoclonus was not associated with dose. Cyanosis, regurgitation, and signs of pain during injection were not observed.

Clinical Implications—

Administration of propofol at 5.1 mg/kg (2.3 mg/lb), IV, should permit endotracheal intubation in half of unpremedicated, healthy, mature goats. Myoclonus and apnea were associated with propofol administration. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 1997;211:86–88)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association


The area of skin supplied by the afferent fibers in one cutaneous nerve is called the cutaneous area (ca) for that nerve. The ca of peripheral branches of lumbar and sacral spinal nerves responsive to the stimulation of hair follicle mechanoreceptors were mapped in 27 dogs.

The amount of overlap among the ca was similar to that found for other ca of the body. The ca of peripheral branches of the sciatic nerve were restricted to the lateral, cranial, and caudal aspects of the pelvic limb distal to the stifle. The ca of the saphenous nerve was located on the medial side of the limb, except for a small area located on the lateral side of the crus. The distal part of the ca of the saphenous nerve was completely overlapped in the hind paw by branches of the superficial peroneal nerve laterally and the medial plantar branch of the tibial nerve medially. The ca for the deep peroneal nerve was located on the dorsal surface of the webbing between digits 2 and 3 and the adjacent skin of these digits.

The ca of the plantar branches of the tibial nerve were small in comparison with the diameter of the nerve, suggesting that these branches contained nerve fibers supplying other, deeper structures in the hindpaw and that damage to these nerves would interfere with cutaneous sensation in only a small region on the plantar surface of the hindpaw.

Knowledge of the ca of the various branches of the sciatic nerve allows more accurate localization of injury to the sciatic nerve or its branches by using areas of anesthesia.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research



Sedative, cardiorespiratory, and analgesic effects of intramuscular administration of medetomidine (40 µg/kg of body weight)-glycopyrrolate (0.01 mg/kg) and medetomidine (10 µg/kg)-butorphanol (0.2 mg/kg)-glycopyrrolate (0.01 mg/kg) combinations were compared. Additional evaluations were done on reversal of medetomidine, using atipamezole (200 µ g/kg, IV), after 90 minutes of medetomidine-induced sedation.


Crossover study, with each dog receiving each drug combination at 1-week intervals.


Six 2-year-old English hound-type dogs.


Arterial blood pressure, ECG, respiratory rate, tidal volume, minute volume, arterial blood gas tensions, and serum biochemical variables were measured before, during, and after sedation. Analgesia was evaluated by needle prick on the skin and tail clamp.


Heart rate decreased significantly from 100 beats/mm to <40 beats/min within 3 minutes of injection of medetomidine and medetomidine. and butorphanol (MB). Mean arterial blood pressure in both groups were maintained above 100 mm of Hg throughout the recording period. There was no significant difference between medetomidine and MB in respiratory rate, tidal volume, and minute ventilation. Hypoxemia (PaO2 < 60 mm of Hg) was observed at 10 and 20 minutes in 2 dogs given MB. Atipamezole administration in the dogs given medetomidine significantly increased PaO2 and returned the values to baseline. Needle prick analgesia duration was longer in the medetomidine (80 ± 7.7 minutes) than MB (56.0 ± 19.2 minutes) group. Tail pinch analgesia was variable in both groups. Duration of lateral recumbency was longer after medetomidine (90 ± 0 minutes) than MB (73.5 ± 19.0 minutes).


Medetomidine and MB were effective combinations for mildly invasive procedures.

Clinical Relevance

MB induced a shorter period of analgesia and recumbency than did medetomidine. (Am J Vet Res 1996;57:535–540)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research


The effects of different arterial carbon dioxide tensions (PaCO2 ) on cerebrospinal fluid pressure (csfp) and intraocular pressure (iop) were studied in 6 male halothane-anesthetized horses positioned in left lateral recumbency. Steady-state anesthetic conditions (1.06% end-tidal halothane concentration) commenced 60 minutes following anesthetic induction with only halothane in oxygen. During atracurium neuromuscular blockade, horses were ventilated, and respiratory rate and peak inspiratory airway pressure were maintained within narrow limits. The csfp and iop were measured at 3 different levels of PaCO2 (approx 40, 60, and 80 mm of Hg). The PaCO2 sequence in each horse was determined from a type of switchback design with the initial PaCO2 (period 1), established 30 minutes after the commencement of steady-state anesthesia, being repeated in the middle (period 3) and again at the end (period 5) of the experiment. Measurements taken from the middle 3 periods (2, 3, and 4) would form a Latin square design replicated twice. The interval between each period was approximately 45 minutes.

Data from periods 2, 3, and 4 indicated that csfp (P < 0.05) and mean systemic arterial pressure increased significantly (P < 0.05) with high PaCO2 . Mean central venous pressure, heart rate, and iop did not change significantly during these same conditions. Measurements taken during periods 1, 3, and 5 were compared to assess the time-related responses to anesthesia and showed a significant increase in csfp, a significant decrease in mean central venous pressure, and a small (but not statistically significant) increase in mean systemic arterial pressure.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research