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  • Author or Editor: C. H. Eary x
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Summary

Paraherquamide, an oxindole alkaloid metabolite of Penicillium paraherquei and P charlesii, is a new anthelmintic with potential broad-spectrum use. In initial trials, it had an excellent safety profile in cattle and sheep at doses efficacious against a dozen or more helminths, but recently it produced unexpected and severe toxicosis in dogs at doses far below those that were safe in the ruminants. To provide data on which to build rational safety tests in the future, we tested the acute toxicity of paraherquamide administered po to male CD-1 mice and compared its profile with the most potent anthelmintic known, ivermectin. The estimated doses lethal to 50% of a group of mice were 14.9 and 29.5 mg/kg of body weight for paraherquamide and ivermectin, respectively. The no-effect doses were 5.6 and 18.0 mg/kg for paraherquamide and ivermectin, respectively. Signs of intoxication in paraherquamide-treated mice, if they developed, emanated within 30 minutes of administration, irrespective of dose, and consisted of either mild depression with complete recovery or a 5- to 10-minute period of breathing difficulty followed by respiratory failure and death by 1 hour after treatment. Gross necropsy findings in paraherquamide-treated mice that died in the high-dose group were normal. Ivermectin-related toxicity was slower and more predictable, taking place over a 3-day period, with dose-dependent signs of intoxication consisting of tremors, ataxia, recumbency, coma, and death. Necropsy of ivermectin-treated mice that died in the high-dose group revealed dehydration, a condition most likely resulting from the coma-induced state. These observations are congruent with clinical data from dog studies and suggest that if broad-spectrum use of ivermectin (expected to be approx 0.2 mg/kg) is unlikely because of idiosyncratic toxic effects in certain dogs, then use of a compound for dogs with an acute safety factor half of ivermectin, such as paraherquamide, would be even more unlikely. These data are also coupled with observations from anthelmintic trials to suggest that ivermectin possesses a substantially greater therapeutic index than does paraherquamide as a broad-spectrum antiparasiticide for ruminants. Although paraherquamide has a lesser therapeutic index, a strategic use for it as an anthelmintic against ruminant parasites that have become resistant to any or all of the other modern broad-spectrum anthelmintics can be suggested.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

SUMMARY

The macrolytic lactone F28249-α was titrated in experimentally infected sheep and found to be highly effective against most of the common gastrointestinal nematodes as a single oral dose, given at a rate of 0.025, 0.05, or 0.1 mg/kg. Specifically, maximal activity was evident at even the lowest dosage against adult Haemonchus contortus, Ostertagia circumcinta, Trichostrongylus axei, and T colubriformis and L4 O circumcinta. Activity against Oesophagostomum columbianum was also high at all dosages, with a calculated ed 95 of 0.029 mg/kg. Cooperia curticei was eliminated at 0.1 mg/kg, but control was erratic at the lower dosages. The greatest weakness of this compound was its activity against C oncophora. The activity against this parasite was weak (≤ 85%) at all dosages, and the dosage-response curve was flat, suggesting dosages substantially higher than those given would be necessary for high-order control of this species.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research