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  • Author or Editor: C. E. DeCamp x
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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Summary

Force plate gait analysis was used to study the effects of subject velocity on ground reaction forces. Seven adult Greyhounds were trotted at 3 distinct velocities: 1.5 to 1.8 m/s, 2.1 to 2.4 m/s, and 2.7 to 3.0 m/s. Forelimb and hind limb peak vertical forces increased with increase in velocity (P < 0.05). Forelimb and hind limb vertical impulses decreased as velocity increased (P < 0.05). Significant variations were not observed for craniocaudal or mediolateral peak forces or impulses. It was concluded that velocity significantly (P < 0.05) influenced ground reaction forces and impulses, and must be controlled in experimental design.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Summary

Coefficients of variation were calculated for peak vertical force and for vertical, cranial, and caudal impulses recorded from the left forelimb and left hind limb of 5 dogs that were trotted across a force plate 5 times by 5 handlers. To determine the percentages of variance attributable to dogs, handlers, and trial repetitions, data recorded for each force measurement were analyzed according to a two-factor anova. Coefficients of variation for peak vertical forces and for vertical impulses varied between 5.8 and 8.5%. Coefficients of variation for the forelimb cranial and caudal impulses and for the hind limb cranial and caudal impulses were 26.4 and 30.5%, and 63.0 and 25.9%, respectively. The percentage of the total variance attributable to dogs and to trial repetitions ranged from 14 to 69% and from 29 to 85%, respectively, depending on the force or impulse evaluated. The percentage of variance attributable to handlers varied between 0 and 7%. The trivial amount of variation attributable to handlers indicated that multiple handlers may be used in experiments without an appreciable influence on the results.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Summary

Motion of 6 clinically sound horses trotting at a speed of 4 m/s on a treadmill was captured by video cameras before and 9, 16, and 23 days after amphotericin-induced lameness to determine the quantitative variables of three-dimensional computer-assisted image analysis that objectively describe carpal lameness. Amphotericin-B was used to induce lameness, and phenylbutazone (2.2 mg/kg of body weight, PO, once) and butorphanol tartrate (0.1 mg/kg im, q 6 h, to effect) were used to control discomfort. Four 60Hz cameras were symmetrically placed around the treadmill to capture 6 seconds of images from retro-reflective spheres taped to the trotting horses. Images were transferred to a video-based digitizer and a computer work station, where 4 files of two-dimensional data were reduced to 1 file of three-dimensional data. The effect of lameness on motion analyzed was assessed by use of two-way ANOVA. Differences between means were assessed, using the Student-Newman-Keul’s test (P ≤ 0.05).

Head and withers excursions, (dorsal vertical displacement of head and withers targets, respectively) during the sound forelimb support phase were increased significantly during all lameness measurement periods. Head excursion, but not withers excursion, during the lame forelimb support phase, was decreased significantly during all lameness measurement periods. Computer determinations of stride length swing phase, stance phase, forelimb abduction, and carpal and fetlock ranges of motion did not consistently characterize the lameness. It was concluded that three-dimensional computer-assisted image analysis could be used for objective lameness evaluation in horses and that head and withers excursions were the most consistent variables for assessing equine carpal lameness.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Objective

To assess the efficacy of etodolac in improving hind limb function in dogs with osteoarthritis of the hip joint.

Design

Prospective study.

Animals

100 client-owned dogs with clinical signs of osteoarthritis of the hip joint.

Procedure

Baseline ground reaction forces and subjective assessment scores were collected twice at a 7- to 10-day interval. After meeting entrance criteria, dogs were randomly assigned to the following 3 treatment groups: control group (0 mg of etodolac), low-dosage group (135 mg of etodolac), or high-dosage group (450 mg of etodolac). Dogs were treated once daily for 8 days, and gait analysis was repeated on day 8.

Results

On day 8 of treatment, vertical impulse and vertical peak force values for low- and high-dosage groups were significantly greater than baseline values within each group. On day 8, vertical impulse values from the high-dosage group were significantly greater than values from the low-dosage group. Vertical peak forces for the low- and high-dosage groups were significantly greater at 8 days than that of the control group. Analysis of the effect of evaluation center (site) on treatment outcome did not reveal a significant effect.

Clinical Implications

Etodolac administration for 8 days improved ground reaction forces in dogs with osteoarthritis of the hip joint. Improvement in force transmission was dosage dependent for the primary outcome measurement (vertical impulse). Results of the study indicate that etodolac is well tolerated by dogs, with minimal adverse effects during an 8-day treatment period. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 1999;214:206–210)

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To compare the biomechanical properties of pantarsal arthrodesis achieved with a dorsal bone plate-alone (BPA) or pin-plate combination (PPC).

Sample Population—8 pairs of cadaver canine tarsi.

Procedure—Within a pair, 1 tarsus was arthrodesed by use of a 13-hole 3.5-mm broad dynamic compression bone plate applied to the dorsal aspect of the tarsus; the paired tarsus received an identical plate similarly applied, with the addition of an intramedullary pin filling approximately 40% of the tibial medullary canal, spanning the tibiotarsal joint. Plates were instrumented with strain gauges proximal and distal to the solid portion of the plate. Specimens were mounted on a servo-hydraulic testing machine and loaded at 20%, 40%, and 80% of body weight for 10 cycles at 1 Hz. Construct compliance, angular deformation, and plate strain were determined during the 10th cycle.

Results—PPC specimens were less compliant than BPA specimens at all loads and had significantly less angular deformation than BPA specimens at loads of 40% and 80% of body weight. Tibiotarsal gauge microstrain was significantly less in PPC specimens, compared with BPA specimens, regardless of loads. Maximal strains were 33.5% to 40.5% less in PPC than BPA specimens.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—For pantarsal arthrodesis in dogs, our results indicate that the PPC construct is biomechanically superior to the BPA construct. By improving construct stability, addition of an intramedullary pin to the traditional BPA technique may lessen implant-related complications and improve plate fatigue life. A subsequent decrease in postoperative morbidity may occur with little addition of time or complexity to the surgical procedure. (Am J Vet Res 2005;66:125–131)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Summary

Limb symmetry was evaluated by measuring ground reaction forces in 2 groups of normal-gaited dogs at a trot. Data were collected from 2 groups of 21 dogs trotted at dog/handler velocities of 1.25 to 1.55 m/s and 1.85 to 2.05 m/s, respectively. Of these dogs, 9 participated in both groups to allow comparison of data at both velocities. Additionally, 16 of the dogs in group 1 were measured in 2 directions of movement to determine whether directional dependence was present. Collected data were then applied to 3 described symmetry indices.

Each index was easy to calculate, but all had limitations. A major limitation was variation in magnitude of ground reaction forces measured between the different axes and the effect of this variation on precision of the derived indices. Vertical ground forces provided the most consistent symmetry indices, in part because of their large magnitude. The indices indicated that no dog had perfect right-to-left symmetry during a trotting gait. Statistical differences were not found in any of the measurements of directional dependence. Likewise, comparing symmetry data in dogs trotted at both velocities indicated no significant differences in any axis.

However, further analysis of the data revealed the actual amount that a variance attributable to right-left limb variation was negligible. Most of the variance was attributable to trial variation. Thus, the aforementioned indices, which use nonconsecutive footfall methods to evaluate limb symmetry, actually measure principally trial variation and not limb-to-limb variation.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To compare structural properties of a plate-rod combination–bone construct (PRCbc) and interlocking nail–bone construct (ILNbc) by use of an experimentally induced gap fracture in canine tibiae.

Sample Population—12 paired canine tibiae.

Procedure—Specimens were implanted with a plate-rod combination consisting of a 3.5-mm, limited-contact, dynamic-compression plate combined with an intramedullary rod or 6-mm interlocking nail. Ostectomy (removal of 10-mm segment) was performed. Paired constructs were loaded for bending, compression, or torsion measurements (4 constructs/group). Compliance was determined by fitting regression lines to the load-position curves at low (initial compliance) and high (terminal compliance) loads.

Results—Bending compliances did not differ significantly between constructs. For the ILNbc, initial compliance was greater than terminal compliance in compression and torsion. Initial compliance and terminal compliance for the PRCbc were similar in compression and torsion. Initial compliance in compression and torsion was greater for the ILNbc, compared with initial compliance for the PRCbc. Maximum deformations in bending and compression were similar between constructs; however, maximum torsional angle was significantly greater for the ILNbc, compared with values for the PRCbc.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—The study documented that for an experimentally induced gap fracture in canine tibiae, a plate-rod combination is a significantly less compliant fixation method in torsion and compression, compared with an interlocking nail. Considering the deleterious effects of torsional deformation on bone healing, a plate-rod combination may represent a biomechanically superior fixation method, compared with an interlocking nail, for the treatment of dogs with comminuted tibial diaphyseal fractures. (Am J Vet Res 2005;66:1536–1543)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research