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Abstract

Objective—To evaluate the immunologic response of a killed tachyzoite vaccine against Neospora caninum and its effectiveness in preventing fetal loss associated with experimentally induced neosporosis in sheep.

Animals—30 Dorset ewes.

Procedure—Ewes were randomly allocated to receive vaccination on days 1 and 60 of the study with a killed N caninum tachyzoite preparation in a commercially available adjuvant or a saline-adjuvant mixture. A ram was placed on pasture with the ewes from days 15 to 60. Blood was collected from ewes before primary and booster vaccinations and prior to experimental challenge with N caninum tachyzoite performed on day 90; sera were assessed via Neospora agglutination (NA) and immunofluorescence antibody (IFA) assays. Blood was collected from lambs before they suckled, and sera were tested for antibodies against N caninum.

Results—Of the 14 vaccinated ewes that became pregnant, 12 gave birth to live-born lambs; in contrast, 5 of 11 pregnant control ewes gave birth to live-born lambs. Whereas vaccination improved fetal survival in pregnant ewes challenged with N caninum tachyzoites, it did not appear to have any appreciable effect on transmission of N caninum to offspring, as indicated by results of NA and IFA assays.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—The N caninum tachyzoite vaccine used in this study appeared to provide protection against fetal loss associated with experimentally induced neosporosis in a high proportion of pregnant ewes. (Am J Vet Res 2004;65:1404–1408)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

SUMMARY

A double-blind study was conducted to compare gastri ulcer healing time in nontreated dogs with that in dogs treated with either cimetidine or omeprazole. Single ulcers were created in the gastric antrum by use of a suction biopsy capsule. Each dog was given 25 mg of aspirin/kg of body weight orally for 20 days after ulcer induction. Five control dogs were given aspirin only (no anti-ulcer medication) during the 20-day study. Six dogs were given cimetidine at dosage of 10 mg/kg orally every 8 hours, and 6 dogs were given omeprazole orally at dosage of 2 μmol/kg (0.7 mg/kg) once daily. All dogs were examined endoscopically on days 5, 10, 15, and 20 and were given a score for the size of the mechanically created ulcer and a score for the degree of aspirin-induced gastritis. All dogs were euthanatized on day 21, and gastric lesions were examined histologically. Significant differences were not evident in ulcer healing scores or degree of aspirin-induced gastritis among treated and nontreated dogs on days 5, 10, 15, and 20. However, aspirin-induced gastritis was less severe in dogs of the omeprazole group than in dogs of the cimetidine or control group on each day observations were made. The effect of omeprazole given once daily was comparable with that of cimetidine given every 8 hours in lessening aspirin-induced gastritis.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate the immunologic response of a killed tachyzoite vaccine against Neospora caninum and its effectiveness in preventing vertical transmission of N caninum in sheep.

Animals—40 Dorset ewes seronegative for N caninum.

Procedure—Group-A ewes (n = 20) were vaccinated on days 1 and 126 with a killed N caninum tachyzoite preparation in a commercially available adjuvant. Group-B ewes (n = 20) were sham vaccinated. Blood samples were collected from ewes every 2 weeks and a recombinant ELISA (rELISA) was used to determine serum antibody titers against N caninum. During pregnancy, ewes were challenged with live N caninum tachyzoites. Precolostral serum was collected from lambs and tested for antibodies against N caninum by use of an indirect fluorescence antibody test and the rELISA. Tissue specimens from stillborn lambs or lambs that died within 2 weeks of birth were collected and examined for N caninum antigen and DNA by use of immunohistochemistry and polymerase chain reaction assay, respectively.

Results—Serum antibody titers against N caninum were significantly higher in group-A ewes, compared with group B ewes, following vaccination. Serum antibodies against N caninum were detected in 100% (33/33) of group-B lambs and 75% (18/24) of group-A lambs. In tissue specimens, N caninum DNA was detected in 9 of 11 group-B lambs and 0 of 10 group- A lambs. Histologically, N caninum tachyzoites were observed in 4 group-A lambs and 3 group-B lambs.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—The killed tachyzoite vaccine against N caninum stimulated a humoral immune response in sheep and provided partial protection against vertical transmission. (Am J Vet Res 2003;64:449–452)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE To evaluate the coding regions of ADAMTS17 for potential mutations in Chinese Shar-Pei with a diagnosis of primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG), primary lens luxation (PLL), or both.

ANIMALS 63 Shar-Pei and 96 dogs of other breeds.

PROCEDURES ADAMTS17 exon resequencing was performed on buccal mucosal DNA from 10 Shar-Pei with a diagnosis of POAG, PLL, or both (affected dogs). A candidate causal variant sequence was identified, and additional dogs (53 Shar-Pei [11 affected and 42 unaffected] and 95 dogs of other breeds) were genotyped for the variant sequence by amplified fragment length polymorphism analysis. Total RNA was extracted from ocular tissues of 1 affected Shar-Pei and 1 ophthalmologically normal Golden Retriever; ADAMTS17 cDNA was reverse transcribed and sequenced, and ADAMTS17 expression was evaluated by quantitative reverse-transcription PCR assay.

RESULTS All affected Shar-Pei were homozygous for a 6-bp deletion in exon 22 of ADAMTS17 predicted to affect the resultant protein. All unaffected Shar-Pei were heterozygous or homozygous for the wild-type allele. The variant sequence was significantly associated with affected status (diagnosis of POAG, PLL, or both). All dogs of other breeds were homozygous for the wild-type allele. The cDNA sequencing confirmed presence of the expected variant mRNA sequence in ocular tissue from the affected dog only. Gene expression analysis revealed a 4.24-fold decrease in the expression of ADAMTS17 in ocular tissue from the affected dog.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results supported that the phenotype (diagnosis of POAG, PLL, or both) is an autosomal recessive trait in Shar-Pei significantly associated with the identified mutation in ADAMTS17.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research