Search Results

You are looking at 1 - 10 of 21 items for

  • Author or Editor: C. A. Tony Buffington x
  • Refine by Access: All Content x
Clear All Modify Search
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To compare results of a conventional obesity treatment program with those of an obesity treatment program that included education of owners of obese dogs.

Design—Nonblinded prospective clinical trial.

Animals—60 obese dogs with a body condition score (BCS) of 8/9 or 9/9.

Procedure—Dogs were randomly assigned to control or owner education (EDU) treatment groups. A 6- month weight loss period was followed by an 18- month weight maintenance period. Daily caloric intake to induce loss of 1% of body weight/wk was calculated for each dog after assessment of prior diet history. The daily caloric intake for weight maintenance was estimated to be 20% greater than that calculated for weight loss with adjustments of ± 5% as required. Weight and BCS were recorded monthly for each dog. Owners of dogs in the EDU group were required to attend monthly classes that addressed nutrition-related topics during the 6-month weight loss period.

Results—Dogs in both treatment groups had significantly lower weight at the end of the weight loss period, compared with initial weight. Mean weight loss at 6 months was 14.7% in the control group and 15% in the EDU group; this difference was not significant. During the weight maintenance period, percentage weight loss was maintained in both treatment groups. Mean changes in BCS at 6 months (relative to time 0) were –1.5 in the control group and –1.7 in the EDU group. At 24 months, mean changes in BCS (relative to time 0) were –2.1 in the control group and –2.2 in the EDU group. No significant differences in BCS were identified between treatment groups at either 6 or 24 months.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Mean decrease in BCS of 2 and mean weight loss of 15% were achieved and maintained in all dogs. An obesity treatment program that included dietary changes and monthly weight checks during the weight loss and weight maintenance periods was sufficient to achieve these results. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2004;224:1932–1935)

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Summary

Feeding commercial enteral diets to critically ill dogs and cats via nasogastric tubes was an appropriate means for providing nutritional support and was associated with few complications. Twenty-six cats and 25 dogs in the intensive care unit of our teaching hospital were evaluated for malnutrition and identified as candidates for nutritional support via nasogastric tube. Four commercial liquid formula diets and one protein supplement designed for use in human beings were fed to the dogs and cats. Outcome variables used to assess efficacy and safety of nutritional support were return to voluntary food intake, maintenance of body weight to within 10% of admission weight, and complications associated with feeding liquid diets. Sixty-three percent of animals experienced no complications with enteral feedings; resumption of food intake began for most animals (52%) while they were still in the hospital. Weight was maintained in 61% of the animals (16 of 26 cats and 15 of 25 dogs). Complications that did occur included vomiting, diarrhea, and inadvertent tube removal. Most problems were resolved by changing the diet or adhering to the recommended feeding protocol. Nutritional support as a component of therapy in small animals often is initiated late in the course of the disease when animals have not recovered as quickly as expected. If begun before the animal becomes nutrient depleted, enteral feeding may better support the animal and avoid serious complications.

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate the effects of a synthetic feline facial pheromone (FFP) on behavior and food intake of healthy versus clinically ill cats.

Design—Original study.

Animals—20 cats were used in each of 2 studies. In each study, 7 cats were considered healthy, and 13 cats were determined to be clinically ill.

Procedure—In study 1, cats were assigned either to exposure to FFP (treated group; 4 healthy, 6 ill cats) or to exposure to the vehicle (70% ethanol solution; control group; 3 healthy, 7 ill cats). Cats were placed in a cage containing a small cotton towel that had been sprayed with FFP or vehicle 30 minutes previously. Cats were then videotaped for 125 minutes, and food intake was measured during this period. Videotapes were scored at 5-minute intervals for various behaviors. In study 2, cats were categorized in 1 of 2 groups; group 1 (2 healthy, 8 ill cats) had a cat carrier placed in their cages, and group 2 (5 healthy, 5 ill cats) did not. All cats were exposed to FFP, and 24-hour food intake was measured.

Results—Differences between behaviors of healthy versus clinically ill cats were not identified. In the first study, significant increases in grooming and interest in food were found in cats exposed to FFP compared with vehicle. For all cats, significant positive correlations were detected between grooming and facial rubbing, walking and facial rubbing, interest in food and facial rubbing, eating and facial rubbing, grooming and interest in food, and grooming and eating. In the second study, 24-hour food intake was significantly greater in cats exposed to FFP and the cat carrier, compared with cats exposed to FFP alone.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest that exposure to FFP may be useful to increase food intake of hospitalized cats. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2000;217:1154–1156)

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate the in vivo response of α2-adrenoceptors to medetomidine administration in cats with feline idiopathic cystitis (FIC) during periods of stress and after environmental enrichment.

Animals—13 cats with FIC and 12 healthy cats.

Procedures—Cats were subjected to an acute-onset moderate stressor for 8 days. After stress, 20 μg of medetomidine/kg was administered IM on days 1, 3, and 8. Heart rate, blood pressure, pupil diameter, respiratory rate, and level of sedation were evaluated before and after administration of the drug. After day 8, cats were moved to an enriched environment, and tests were repeated on day 35.

Results—Heart rate decreased and pupil diameter increased significantly after medetomidine administration in healthy cats, compared with cats with FIC. Cats with FIC had significantly lower respiratory rates. No significant differences in blood pressure or sedation level were found.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Increased plasma catecholamine concentrations during the enrichment phase, which have been reported elsewhere, may have contributed to the differences in α2-adrenoceptor responses detected in cats with FIC.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To compare acoustic startle reflexes (ASRs) of healthy cats and cats with interstitial cystitis (IC).

Animals—28 healthy cats (11 males and 17 females) and 20 cats with IC (13 males and 7 females).

Procedures—To evaluate the effect of neutering on ASRs, ASRs in neutered and unneutered healthy cats were measured. To evaluate the effect of housing facility acclimation on ASRs in cats with IC, ASRs were measured in cats with IC within 1 month after arrival at the housing facility and again 2 to 3 months after arrival. To evaluate the effect of the environment on ASRs, ASRs were evaluated in all cats with and without IC after acclimation but before and then after environmental enrichment.

Results—Neutering led to a significant decrease in overall ASR in the healthy cats. Habituation to the housing facility resulted in a significant decrease in overall ASR of female but not male cats with IC. Environmental enrichment led to a significant decrease in ASR in cats with IC but not in healthy cats.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—The magnitude of the ASR appeared to be sensitive to environmental conditions and affected by sex, both in healthy cats and cats with IC. It was also higher in cats with IC versus healthy cats, except when cats were housed in a highly enriched environment.

Impact for Human Medicine—Treatment approaches that include reduction of a patient's perception of environmental unpredictability may benefit humans with IC.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To compare sickness behaviors (SB) in response to unusual external events (UEE) in healthy cats with those of cats with feline interstitial cystitis (FIC).

Design—Prospective observational study.

Animals—12 healthy cats and 20 donated cats with FIC.

Procedures—Cats were housed in a vivarium. Sickness behaviors referable to the gastrointestinal and urinary tracts, the skin, and behavior problems were recorded by a single observer for 77 weeks. Instances of UEE (eg, changes in caretakers, vivarium routine, and lack of interaction with the investigator) were identified during 11 of the 77 weeks. No instances of UEE were identified during the remaining 66 weeks, which were considered control weeks.

Results—An increase in age and exposure to UEE, but not disease status, significantly increased total number of SB when results were controlled for other factors. Evaluation of individual SB revealed a protective effect of food intake for healthy males. An increase in age conferred a small increase in relative risk (RR) for upper gastrointestinal tract signs (RR, 1.2) and avoidance behavior (1.7). Exposure to UEE significantly increased the RR for decreases in food intake (RR, 9.3) and for no eliminations in 24 hours (6.4). Exposure to UEE significantly increased the RR for defecation (RR, 9.8) and urination (1.6) outside the litter box.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—SB, including some of the most commonly observed abnormalities in client-owned cats, were observed after exposure to UEE in both groups. Because healthy cats and cats with FIC were comparably affected by UEE, clinicians should consider the possibility of exposure to UEE in cats evaluated for these signs.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Objective—

To compare urine pH of cats and dogs determined by use of a dipstrip and a pH meter.

Design—

Prospective study.

Sample Population—

109 urine samples from 88 cats that were clinically normal or had signs of irritative urination, 52 samples from 13 clinically normal dogs, and 3 samples from 3 dogs with urinary tract infections.

Procedure—

Measurements of urine pH were obtained by use of a dipstrip and pH meter, and degree of agreement between measurements was evaluated.

Results—

Mean difference (± 2 SD) between the 2 methods was 0.1 ± 0.9 pH units. Only 65 of 164 (40%) samples measured by use of a dipstrip were within 0.25 pH units of results obtained by use of the pH meter.

Clinical Implications—

When an accurate measurement of urine pH is critical for clinical decision making, the measurement should be made by use of a pH meter. Dipstrips typically are not accurate enough to be clinically useful. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 1998:213:996-998)

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association