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Summary

A serologic survey was conducted to determine the prevalence and seroconversion rates for ovine adenovirus (oav) serotypes 1–4 and bovine adenovirus (bav) serotypes 2, 3, and 7 in sheep in Iowa and in surrounding states. For 2 consecutive years, paired serum samples were obtained from 1- to 2-month-old lambs as they entered a ram test station and, again, 2 months later. Sera were tested for adenovirus antibodies by use of a microtitration serum virus-neutralization test. At the time of entry, high prevalence of antibody (titer ≥ 2) was detected to all tested adenoviruses except bav-3. All adenoviruses were active in the ram test station both years, as indicated by ≥ fourfold increase in adenovirus antibody titer (seroconversion) in some of the lambs. The prevalence and seroconversion rate for oav-1 was 94.0 and 7.2%, respectively; for oav-2, 98.6 and 15.1%; for oav-3, 86.5 and 11.0%; for oav-4, 98.4 and 13.2%; for bav-2, 97.6 and 22.4%; for bav-3, 11.4 and 3.8%; and for bav-7, 81.6 and 4.5%. The results indicate that adenovirus infections were widespread in the sheep population and that the prevalence of active infection based on seroconversion rates was approximately 45%.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

SUMMARY

Ovine progressive pneumonia is caused by a lentivirus of known infectivity only for sheep and goats. Virus susceptibility of 11 other species of animals was examined. Species included cattle, chickens, deer, dogs, goats, hamsters, horses, mice, pigs, rabbits, and rats. Of these species, only goats and rabbits could be experimentally infected with the virus. The infection in rabbits was acute, and virus did not persist or induce antibody production as it does in sheep and goats. Sera obtained from several people working in close contact with the virus and from several wild species, with unknown exposure history, were tested for antibodies to viral antigens. All results were negative. Knowledge of the host range of this virus is important for scientific studies and for virus eradication programs.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate first-intention healing of CO2 laser, 4.0-MHz radiowave radiosurgery (RWRS), and scalpel incisions in ball pythons (Python regius).

Animals—6 healthy adult ball pythons.

Procedures—A skin biopsy sample was collected, and 2-cm skin incisions (4/modality) were made in each snake under anesthesia and closed with surgical staples on day 0. Incision sites were grossly evaluated and scored daily. One skin biopsy sample per incision type per snake was obtained on days 2, 7, 14, and 30. Necrotic and fibroplastic tissue was measured in histologic sections; samples were assessed and scored for total inflammation, histologic response (based on the measurement of necrotic and fibroplastic tissues and total inflammation score), and other variables. Frequency distributions of gross and histologic variables associated with wound healing were calculated.

Results—Gross wound scores were significantly greater (indicating greater separation of wound edges) for laser incisions than for RWRS and scalpel incisions at all evaluated time points. Necrosis was significantly greater in laser and RWRS incisions than in scalpel incision sites on days 2 and 14 and days 2 and 7, respectively; fibroplasia was significantly greater in laser than in scalpel incision sites on day 30. Histologic response scores were significantly lower for scalpel than for other incision modalities on days 2, 14, and 30.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—In snakes, skin incisions made with a scalpel generally had less necrotic tissue than did CO2 laser and RWRS incisions. Comparison of the 3 modalities on the basis of histologic response scores indicated that use of a scalpel was preferable, followed by RWRS and then laser.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate outcome associated with subcutaneous and intramuscular hemangiosarcomas treated with adjuvant doxorubicin in dogs.

Design—Retrospective case series.

Animals—21 dogs.

Procedures—Records of dogs with histologically confirmed hemangiosarcoma, no detectable metastasis at initial evaluation, and adequate local tumor control were included. Age, sex, number of treatments, treatment interval, radiation therapy, and concurrent use of cyclophosphamide or deracoxib were evaluated for associations with disease-free interval (DFI) or survival time. Three to 6 cycles of doxorubicin were planned. Disease-free interval was defined as time of definitive surgery to time of local recurrence, metastasis, or both. Survival time was defined as the beginning of the DFI to time of death.

Results—17 tumors were subcutaneous, and 4 were intramuscular. Median age was 9 years. Median weight was 31.1 kg (68.4 lb). Five dogs received adjuvant radiation therapy. Median DFI for subcutaneous tumors was 1,553 days (95% confidence interval [CI], 469 days to not estimable). Median DFI for intramuscular tumors was 265.5 days (95% CI, 123 to 301 days). Median survival time for subcutaneous tumors was 1,189 days (95% CI, 596 days to not estimable). Median survival time for intramuscular tumors was 272.5 days (95% CI, 123 to 355 days). For dogs with subcutaneous tumors, younger age (< 9 years) was associated with longer DFI and survival time. Dogs with subcutaneous tumors that did not receive radiation therapy had longer DFI.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Dogs with subcutaneous hemangiosarcoma had a more favorable outcome, compared with dogs with intramuscular hemangiosarcoma, when treated with adequate local control and adjuvant doxorubicin.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Eight Holstein cows, 4 inoculated intracistemally in 1 quarter of the mammary gland with Escherichia coli and 4 noninfected controls, were administered ceftiofur sodium (3 mg/kg of body weight, IV, q 12 hours) for 24 hours, beginning at 14 hours after inoculation of infected cows. All challenge-exposed cows became infected, with mean ± SEM peak log10 bacterial concentration in milk of 5.03 ± 0.69 colonyforming units/ml. The infection resulted in systemic signs (mean peak rectal temperature, 41.5 ± 0.3 C; anorexia; signs of depression) and local inflammation (mean peak albumin concentration in milk, 7.89 ± 1.71 mg/ml). Ceftiofur was detectable in milk from all challenge-exposed cows, compared with only 1 of 4 noninfected cows, and the mean period after inoculation that ceftiofur was detectable in milk was longer (P < 0.05) in infected (147.7 ± 27.5 hours) than noninfected cows (1.3 ± 1.3 hours). However, maximal ceftiofur concentration attained in milk for all cows was 0.28 p.g/ml, and was 0.20 jig/ml or less for all but 2 milk samples collected for 10 days after challenge exposure. Mean serum concentration of ceftiofur peaked at 1.0 ± 0.3 μg/ml and 0.7 ± 0.1 μg/ml for infected and noninfected cows, respectively. After each ceftiofur dose, mean peak and trough concentrations of ceftiofur in serum did not differ between groups; however, concentration of ceftiofur in serum was higher at 7 hours after each dose in noninfected cows, suggesting more rapid clearance of the drug in infected cows. Ceftiofur was not detected in serum (< 0.05 μg/ml) of any cow at or after 120 hours following inoculation of infected cows.

Storage of serum samples at —20 C for 3 weeks resulted in a 98.8% decrease in ceftiofur activity, compared with that in fresh serum samples. Eightyseven percent of this loss occurred 30 minutes after mixing serum and ceftiofur; thus, about 13% of the original activity was lost in storage. Storage of milk samples under similar conditions did not result in loss of ceftiofur activity.

Despite acute inflammation, the dosage of ceftiofur used in this trial would not result in drug concentrations in milk above FDA safe concentrations, or above the reported minimum inhibitory concentration for coliform bacteria.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Summary

Seven horses (4 anesthetized and 3 awake) and 2 ponies (anesthetized) were studied to evaluate the high sensitivity of the pulmonary circulation of the horse to various blood-borne particles, and to establish the presence of intravascular macrophages in the lung. Pulmonary and systemic pressures and cardiac output before and during particle injection were measured in some animals. An anesthetized foal had a large increase in pulmonary arterial pressure (32 and 34 mm of Hg) within 1 minute of IV administration of small test doses of radioactively labeled liposomes (2.5 μmol/kg of body weight) or a 1% suspension of blue pigment (0.3 ml/kg), respectively. Quantitative real-time gamma camera imaging of the foal revealed high retention of the labeled liposomes during the first pass through the lungs; retention persisted throughout the experiment. Postmortem analysis revealed 55 and 47% lung retention of liposomes and blue pigment, respectively. The 2 anesthetized ponies had increased pulmonary artery pressure of 34 ± 7 mm of Hg, decreased cardiac output, and 42% lung retention after administration of 1% blue pigment (0.2 ml/kg), whereas 3 awake horses had increased pressure of 28 ± 9 mm of Hg after 1.8 × 108 (1.8-μm-diameter) latex microspheres/kg. None of the injected particles caused vascular obstruction, and they do not cause pulmonary vascular reactivity in species that lack pulmonary intravascular macrophages. Finally, 3 horses (1 anesthetized and 2 awake) were infused Iv with small doses of the blue pigment, and their lungs were perfusion-fixed to identify specific labeling of the pulmonary intravascular macrophages. These cells were fully differentiated macrophages, contained blue pigment in phagocytes, and were tightly adherent to the pulmonary capillary endothelium. At this time, horses (order Perissodactyla) are the only species outside the mammalian order Artiodactyla (sheep, pig, cattle) documented to have reactive intravascular macrophages. Compared with other species, low doses of particles induced marked hemodynamic responses; horses appear to be more sensitive to IV administered particles than are other species studied.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

SUMMARY

Colostrum-deprived lambs and CF1 mice were vaccinated with water-in-oil emulsion vaccines containing nonviable whole cells (wc) of Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis with and without muramyl dipeptide (mdp). Efficacy of vaccines was determined from the survival of mice and lesions in lambs after IV injection of 104 colony-forming units of C pseudotuberculosis. In mice, protection was related to the concentration of wc in the vaccine. At 50, 100, or 150 μg of wc, protection was good (78.8%). At 10 or 25 μg of wc, protection was considerably less (54.7%). At high wc concentrations, protection could only be moderately increased to 82.3% with high (50 and 100 μg) concentrations of mdp or increased to 90% protection with low (5 and 10 μg) concentrations of mdp. At low wc concentrations, protection significantly decreased to 32% (P < 0.025) with high concentrations of mdp, but significantly increased to 72.5% (P < 0.025) with low concen-trations of mdp. Therefore, the amount of protection with lower concentrations of wc and mdp was comparable with the amount of protection with higher concentrations of wc without mdp.

In lambs, high prechallenge antibody titers (geometric mean titers from 5.1 to 5.4 by day 35) were observed after vaccination with wc. Protection and vaccination site abscesses in lambs were related to the concentration of wc and mdp. Pulmonary or vaccination site abscesses were not observed in 4 of 4 lambs vaccinated with 1 mg of wc + 50 μg of mdp.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Summary:

In Holstein cattle, an inherited disease has been recognized recently in which leukocytes lack surface glycoproteins termed β2 integrins, which are important in cell adhesion processes. This disease is the homologue of leukocyte adhesion deficiency in human beings and has been termed bovine leukocyte adhesion deficiency. The molecular basis of this disease is failure to produce normal CD18. The gene encoding bovine CD18 and its abnormal mutation have been sequenced, allowing specific diagnosis of the condition by DNA amplification by polymerase chain reaction followed by specific endonuclease digestion. This test was applied to formalin-fixed archival tissues from 18 cattle that had been admitted to the veterinary medical teaching hospital between 1975 and 1991 and that had had persistent and severe neutrophilia. Blood samples were collected from 2 additional cattle, and leukocytes from these samples also were tested. Fourteen cattle were confirmed to have been homozygous for the bovine leukocyte adhesion deficiency gene. Cattle with this condition had ranged in age from 2 weeks to 8 months at admission. They typically had had chronic bacterial infections that had failed to respond to or had recurred after conventional treatment. Consistent findings in these cattle included signs of bronchopneumonia, gingivitis, periodontitis, and peripheral lymphadenopathy. Severe neutrophilia, usually without a left shift, was a hallmark of the disease; consistent clinical biochemical findings included hypoalbuminemia, hyperglobulinemia, and hypoglycemia. This disease is important because it mimics common calfhood diseases such as pneumonia and diarrhea, but is ultimately consistently fatal before adulthood.

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Case Description—A 10-year-old spayed female Jack Russell Terrier and a 7-year-old neutered male mixed-breed dog were evaluated because of acute, progressive, unilateral forelimb lameness associated with signs of pain and turgid antebrachial swelling.

Clinical Findings—For either dog, there were no salient pathological or diagnostic imaging abnormalities. A diagnosis of compartment syndrome was confirmed on the basis of high caudal antebrachial compartmental pressure in the affected forelimb.

Treatment and Outcome—Both dogs underwent surgical exploration of the affected forelimb. In each case, an intramuscular tumor (mast cell tumor in the Jack Russell Terrier and suspected sarcoma in the mixed-breed dog) was detected and presumed to be the cause of the high compartmental pressure. At 6 months following tumor excision, the dog with the mast cell tumor did not have any clinical signs of disease. The dog with a suspected sarcoma underwent tumor excision and forelimb amputation at the proximal portion of the humerus followed by chemotherapy; the dog was euthanized approximately 1 year following treatment because of pulmonary metastasis.

Clinical Relevance—Compartment syndrome is a serious but rarely reported condition in dogs and is typically ascribed to intracompartmental hemorrhage. These 2 cases illustrate the potential for expansile intramuscular antebrachial tumors to cause compartment syndrome in dogs.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To assess the feasibility and accuracy of using 2 methods for reduction and alignment of simulated comminuted diaphyseal tibial fractures in conjunction with 3-D–printed patient-specific pin guides.

SAMPLE

Paired pelvic limbs from 8 skeletally mature dogs weighing 20 to 35 kg.

METHODS

CT images of both tibiae were obtained, and 3-D reconstructions of the tibiae were used to create proximal and distal patient-specific pin guides. These guides were printed and used to facilitate fracture reduction and alignment in conjunction with either a 3-D–printed reduction guide or a linear type 1A external fixator. Postreduction CT images were used to assess the accuracy of pin guide placement and the accuracy of fracture reduction and alignment.

RESULTS

The 3-D–printed guides were applied with acceptable ease. Guides for both groups were placed with minor but detectable deviations from the planned location (P = .01), but deviations were not significantly different between groups. Fracture reduction resulted in similar minor but detectable morphological differences from the intact tibiae (P = .01). In both groups, fracture reduction and alignment were within clinically acceptable parameters for fracture stabilization by means of minimally invasive plate osteosynthesis.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Virtual surgical planning and fabrication of patient-specific 3-D–printed pin guides have the potential to facilitate fracture reduction and alignment during use of minimally invasive plate osteosynthesis for fracture stabilization.

Open access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research