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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Summary

Articles published in 1992 in 6 veterinary journals were reviewed. In 51% of the articles, statistical analyses were not performed or only descriptive statistics (eg, mean, median, standard deviation) were used. The most commonly used statistical tests were ANOVA and t-tests. Knowledge of 5 categories of statistical methods (ANOVA, t-tests, contingency tables, nonparametric tests, and simple linear regression) permitted access to 90% of the veterinary literature surveyed. These data may be useful when modifying the veterinary curriculum to reflect current statistical usage.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Summary

Established procedures for nasogastric intubation are difficult to perform in dogs because of anatomic variation of nasal passages and turbinate structures. Twenty-five clinically normal dogs were used to improve and refine the technique of nasogastric tube placement, and 13 clinical patients at our teaching hospital were evaluated for malnutrition and were considered candidates for nutritional support by nasogastric tube feeding.

An improved method for the placement of nasogastric tubes in dogs was used. By pushing the external nares dorsally while advancing the tube in a caudoventral, medial direction, the tube passed through the ventral meatus and into the oropharynx and esophagus easily. The procedure does not require chemical restraint, and the complication of epistaxis was not observed in any dog. Materials required to perform this technique are inexpensive, and the method can be used for the administration of nutritional support, fluids, drugs, or contrast material.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To compare results of a conventional obesity treatment program with those of an obesity treatment program that included education of owners of obese dogs.

Design—Nonblinded prospective clinical trial.

Animals—60 obese dogs with a body condition score (BCS) of 8/9 or 9/9.

Procedure—Dogs were randomly assigned to control or owner education (EDU) treatment groups. A 6- month weight loss period was followed by an 18- month weight maintenance period. Daily caloric intake to induce loss of 1% of body weight/wk was calculated for each dog after assessment of prior diet history. The daily caloric intake for weight maintenance was estimated to be 20% greater than that calculated for weight loss with adjustments of ± 5% as required. Weight and BCS were recorded monthly for each dog. Owners of dogs in the EDU group were required to attend monthly classes that addressed nutrition-related topics during the 6-month weight loss period.

Results—Dogs in both treatment groups had significantly lower weight at the end of the weight loss period, compared with initial weight. Mean weight loss at 6 months was 14.7% in the control group and 15% in the EDU group; this difference was not significant. During the weight maintenance period, percentage weight loss was maintained in both treatment groups. Mean changes in BCS at 6 months (relative to time 0) were –1.5 in the control group and –1.7 in the EDU group. At 24 months, mean changes in BCS (relative to time 0) were –2.1 in the control group and –2.2 in the EDU group. No significant differences in BCS were identified between treatment groups at either 6 or 24 months.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Mean decrease in BCS of 2 and mean weight loss of 15% were achieved and maintained in all dogs. An obesity treatment program that included dietary changes and monthly weight checks during the weight loss and weight maintenance periods was sufficient to achieve these results. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2004;224:1932–1935)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

SUMMARY

Groups of male specific-pathogen-free cats were fed a basal, purified diet (A), with or without 0.45% added magnesium (MgCl2, diet B; MgO, diet C) or 1 of 2 commercial diets (D, E). Urine samples collected for 48 hours after 2 weeks of feeding were analyzed for calcium, magnesium, sodium, potassium, ammonium, sulfate, phosphate, oxalate, and citrate content. Concentrations were used to calculate the negative logarithm of the struvite activity product (pSAP), using a microcomputer-based program for calculation of supersaturation of the urine with crystal solutes. The pSAP value for all samples also was hand calculated by use of an equation.

Consumption of diet B caused a significant (P < 0.05) increase in urine calcium concentration. Total urine phosphate concentration was lower in urine from cats fed diets A, B, or C than in urine from cats fed diets D or E. For the various diets, urine PO4 -3 was: 5.3 μM for diet A; 6.3 μM for diet C; 0.9 μM for diet E; 36 nM for diet D, and 0.5 nM for diet B. Consumption of diets B and C caused significant increases in urine magnesium concentration (53.1 nM and 49.1 mM, respectively). Ammonium ion concentration was highest in urine from cats fed diets B and D, 116.2 mM and 100.3 mM, respectively. When the pSAP, hand-calculated assuming ionic strength u = 0.2, was regressed on that calculated by use of the microcomputer program, the coefficient of determination was 0.96 (P ≤ 0.01).

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Summary

Tamm-Horsfall protein (thp) was isolated and purified, using pooled urine collections from clinically normal cats. The effects of feline thp and purified feline serum albumin on urine chemical and struvite crystal variables were compared, using an in vitro crystal growth system and 24-hour samples of pooled urine obtained from 4 cats. Urine samples were placed in wells of cell culture plates, increasing concentrations of ammonium hydroxide were added to adjacent wells to stimulate struvite crystal growth, and the plates were incubated at 37 C. The effect of albumin and thp on crystal growth in sample wells was compared with that in control wells, without protein addition, in the same plate. Crystal growth was assessed by determination of number of crystals and supersaturation index, a scale of crystal habit at different degrees of supersaturation, by use of direct visualization with an inverted microscope. Albumin addition did not have significant effect on either crystal number or supersaturation, compared with controls. Addition of thp significantly (P < 0.05) increased crystal number and supersaturation index. It was concluded that thp significantly (P < 0.05) promoted growth of struvite crystals in feline urine, and thus, may have a role in feline struvite uroliths and struvite urethral plug formation.

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research