Objective—To assess the influence of age on pulmonary hemodynamics and hemorheological properties in healthy dogs.
Animals—14 healthy Beagles.
Procedures—Dogs were placed in 2 age groups as follows: young dogs (≤ 5 years old; n = 8) and old dogs (≥ 8 years old; 6). Hematologic characteristics, plasma total protein and fibrinogen concentrations, and blood viscosity were measured. Systolic time intervals of pulmonary blood flow were recorded by pulsed-wave Doppler echocardiography. Early (E′) and late (A′) diastolic myocardial velocities, isovolumic contraction velocity, and systolic myocardial velocity of the free tricuspid annulus were recorded by pulsed-wave tissue Doppler imaging (TDI). Dogs were anesthetized and pulmonary arterial pressures (PAP) and cardiac output were recorded with a pediatric thermodilution Swan-Ganz catheter.
Results—Hemorheological measurements were not different between the 2 groups. Systolic, mean, and diastolic PAP were higher in old dogs, compared with values in young dogs; this difference was attributed to a high pulmonary vascular resistance and low arterial compliance in old dogs. Systolic time intervals of pulmonary blood flow stayed unchanged. The A′ wave of the free tricuspid annulus was increased in old, compared with that young dogs, and the E′:A′ ratio was decreased. Pulmonary vascular resistance was inversely correlated with compliance.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—The age of dogs should be taken into account when interpreting pulmonary hemodynamic results and TDI variables of right ventricular diastolic function.
Objective—To determine effectiveness of infusion of
1 and 2% enilconazole for treatment of nasal and
sinusal aspergillosis, respectively, in dogs.
Animals—26 client-owned dogs with aspergillosis.
Procedure—All dogs had typical clinical signs of
aspergillosis and rhinoscopically visible intrasinusal or
intranasal fungal plaques associated with turbinate
destruction. During rhinoscopy, affected nasal cavities
and frontal sinuses were debrided meticulously.
Nineteen dogs (group A) were treated with 1% enilconazole
by use of a modified noninvasive infusion
procedure. Seven dogs (group B) were treated with
2% enilconazole via catheters that were placed via
endoscopic guidance into the frontal sinuses. All dogs
underwent follow-up rhinoscopy for determination of
further treatment until cure was established.
Results—Age, disease duration, clinical score, and
rhinoscopic score were similar for both groups before
treatment. In group A, 17 of 19 dogs were cured; 9,
6, and 2 dogs were cured after 1, 2, or 3 treatments,
respectively. The remaining 2 dogs were euthanatized
before the end of the treatment protocol. In
group B, all dogs were cured; 6 dogs and 1 dog were
cured after 1 or 2 treatments, respectively. Only
minor adverse effects such as nasal discharge, epistaxis,
and sneezing developed.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—After extensive
rhinoscopic debridement, 1 and 2% enilconazole
infused into the nasal cavities and the frontal sinuses,
respectively, were effective for treatment of
aspergillosis in dogs. Intrasinusal administration via
endoscopically placed catheters appeared to require
fewer infusions for success. Follow-up rhinoscopy is
strongly advised. (J Am Med Vet Assoc 2002;221:1421–1425)