Objective—To validate a radioimmunoassay for measurement of procollagen type III amino terminal propeptide (PIIINP) concentrations in canine serum and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and investigate the effects of physiologic and pathologic conditions on PIIINP concentrations.
Sample Population—Sera from healthy adult (n = 70) and growing dogs (20) and dogs with chronic renal failure (CRF; 10), cardiomyopathy (CMP; 12), or degenerative valve disease (DVD; 26); and sera and BALF from dogs with chronic bronchopneumopathy (CBP; 15) and healthy control dogs (10 growing and 9 adult dogs).
Procedure—A radioimmunoassay was validated, and a reference range for serum PIIINP (S-PIIINP) concentration was established. Effects of growth, age, sex, weight, CRF, and heart failure on S-PIIINP concentration were analyzed. In CBP-affected dogs, S-PIIINP and BALF-PIIINP concentrations were evaluated.
Results—The radioimmunoassay had good sensitivity, linearity, precision, and reproducibility and reasonable accuracy for measurement of S-PIIINP and BALF-PIIINP concentrations. The S-PIIINP concentration reference range in adult dogs was 8.86 to 11.48 μg/L. Serum PIIINP concentration correlated with weight and age. Growing dogs had significantly higher S-PIIINP concentrations than adults, but concentrations in CRF-, CMP-, DVD-, or CBP-affected dogs were not significantly different from control values. Mean BALF-PIIINP concentration was significantly higher in CBP-affected dogs than in healthy adults.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—In dogs, renal or cardiac disease or CBP did not significantly affect S-PIIINP concentration; dogs with CBP had high BALF-PIIINP concentrations. Data suggest that the use of PIIINP as a marker of pathologic fibrosis might be limited in growing dogs.
Objective—To determine effectiveness of infusion of
1 and 2% enilconazole for treatment of nasal and
sinusal aspergillosis, respectively, in dogs.
Animals—26 client-owned dogs with aspergillosis.
Procedure—All dogs had typical clinical signs of
aspergillosis and rhinoscopically visible intrasinusal or
intranasal fungal plaques associated with turbinate
destruction. During rhinoscopy, affected nasal cavities
and frontal sinuses were debrided meticulously.
Nineteen dogs (group A) were treated with 1% enilconazole
by use of a modified noninvasive infusion
procedure. Seven dogs (group B) were treated with
2% enilconazole via catheters that were placed via
endoscopic guidance into the frontal sinuses. All dogs
underwent follow-up rhinoscopy for determination of
further treatment until cure was established.
Results—Age, disease duration, clinical score, and
rhinoscopic score were similar for both groups before
treatment. In group A, 17 of 19 dogs were cured; 9,
6, and 2 dogs were cured after 1, 2, or 3 treatments,
respectively. The remaining 2 dogs were euthanatized
before the end of the treatment protocol. In
group B, all dogs were cured; 6 dogs and 1 dog were
cured after 1 or 2 treatments, respectively. Only
minor adverse effects such as nasal discharge, epistaxis,
and sneezing developed.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—After extensive
rhinoscopic debridement, 1 and 2% enilconazole
infused into the nasal cavities and the frontal sinuses,
respectively, were effective for treatment of
aspergillosis in dogs. Intrasinusal administration via
endoscopically placed catheters appeared to require
fewer infusions for success. Follow-up rhinoscopy is
strongly advised. (J Am Med Vet Assoc 2002;221:1421–1425)
Objective—To assess the influence of age on pulmonary hemodynamics and hemorheological properties in healthy dogs.
Animals—14 healthy Beagles.
Procedures—Dogs were placed in 2 age groups as follows: young dogs (≤ 5 years old; n = 8) and old dogs (≥ 8 years old; 6). Hematologic characteristics, plasma total protein and fibrinogen concentrations, and blood viscosity were measured. Systolic time intervals of pulmonary blood flow were recorded by pulsed-wave Doppler echocardiography. Early (E′) and late (A′) diastolic myocardial velocities, isovolumic contraction velocity, and systolic myocardial velocity of the free tricuspid annulus were recorded by pulsed-wave tissue Doppler imaging (TDI). Dogs were anesthetized and pulmonary arterial pressures (PAP) and cardiac output were recorded with a pediatric thermodilution Swan-Ganz catheter.
Results—Hemorheological measurements were not different between the 2 groups. Systolic, mean, and diastolic PAP were higher in old dogs, compared with values in young dogs; this difference was attributed to a high pulmonary vascular resistance and low arterial compliance in old dogs. Systolic time intervals of pulmonary blood flow stayed unchanged. The A′ wave of the free tricuspid annulus was increased in old, compared with that young dogs, and the E′:A′ ratio was decreased. Pulmonary vascular resistance was inversely correlated with compliance.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—The age of dogs should be taken into account when interpreting pulmonary hemodynamic results and TDI variables of right ventricular diastolic function.
Objective—To determine whether dobutamine stress
tests (DST) can be used to detect cardiac dysfunction
in dogs with early left ventricular dysfunction (ELVD)
induced by rapid right ventricular pacing (RRVP).
Animals—7 adult male Beagles.
Procedure—A pacemaker was surgically implanted
in each dog at the level of the right ventricular apex.
Electrocardiography, Doppler sphygmomanometry,
and Doppler echocardiography were performed
before and during a DST prior to activation of the
pacemaker and every 3 to 4 days during the period of
RRVP. Dobutamine stress tests were performed by
infusing dobutamine at incremental dosages ranging
from 12.5 to 42.5 µg/kg of body weight/min.
Results—Clinical signs of congestive heart failure
were not observed during the pacing period. However,
all dogs developed ELVD associated with significant
changes in values for most Doppler echocardiographic
variables obtained prior to DST. Adverse cardiac
effects were not detected during DST. Most Doppler
echocardiographic indices of cardiac function were significantly
altered in response to dobutamine infusion
during the pacing period, compared with prepacing values.
However, a dobutamine-induced 2-fold increase
in cardiac output was maintained.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Dobutamine
stress tests can be safely performed in dogs with
experimentally induced ELVD. Dobutamine stress
tests may be a sensitive, noninvasive diagnostic
method, complementary to standard clinical examinations,
for detection of early cardiac dysfunction in
dogs asymptomatic for dilated cardiomyopathy. (Am J
Vet Res 2001;62:448–455)
Objective—To determine radiographic, magnetic resonance
imaging (MRI), computed tomography (CT),
and rhinoscopic features of nasal aspergillosis in
Animals—15 client-owned dogs.
Procedure—All dogs had clinical signs of chronic
nasal disease; the diagnosis of nasal aspergillosis was
made on the basis of positive results for at least 2
diagnostic tests (serology, cytology, histology, or fungal
culture) and detection of typical intrasinusal and
intranasal fungal colonies and turbinate destruction
via rhinoscopy. Radiography, MRI, and CT were performed
under general anesthesia. Rhinoscopy was
repeated to evaluate lesions and initiate treatment.
Findings of radiography, MRI, CT, and rhinoscopy
Results—MRI and CT revealed lesions suggestive of
nasal aspergillosis more frequently than did radiography.
Computed tomography was the best technique for
detection of cortical bone lesions; the nature of abnormal
soft tissue, however, could not be identified.
Magnetic resonance imaging allowed evaluation of
lesions of the frontal bone and was especially useful for
differentiating between a thickened mucosa and secretions
or fungal colonies; however, fungal colonies could
not be differentiated from secretions. Rhinoscopy
allowed identification of the nature of intranasal and
intrasinusal soft tissue but was not as useful as CT and
MRI for defining the extent of lesions and provided no
information regarding bone lesions.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—The value of
CT and MRI for diagnosis of nasal aspergillosis was
similar and greater than that of radiography.
Rhinoscopy is necessary because it is the only technique
that allows direct visualization of fungal
colonies. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2004;225:1703–1712)
Objective—To assess morphologic and metabolic
abnormalities in dogs with early left ventricular dysfunction
(ELVD) induced by rapid right ventricular pacing
Procedure—Plasma carnitine concentrations were
measured before and after development of ELVD
induced by RRVP. At the same times, transvenous
endomyocardial biopsy was performed, and specimens
were submitted for determination of myocardial
carnitine concentrations and histologic, morphometric,
and ultrastructural examination.
Results—In 4 dogs in which baseline plasma total carnitine
concentration was normal, RRVP induced a
decrease in myocardial total and free carnitine concentrations
and an increase in myocardial esterified carnitine
concentration. In 3 dogs in which baseline plasma
total carnitine concentration was low, plasma and
myocardial carnitine concentrations were unchanged
after pacing. Structural changes associated with pacing
included perinuclear vacuolization in 3 dogs.
Morphometric analyses indicated there was a decrease
in myofiber cross-sectional diameter and area following
pacing. Electron microscopy revealed changes in
myofibrils and mitochondria following pacing.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results indicated
that moderate to severe alterations in myocyte
cytoarchitecture are present in dogs with ELVD
induced by RRVP and that in dogs with normal plasma
carnitine concentrations, myocardial carnitine
deficiency may be a biochemical marker of ELVD.
Results also indicated that transvenous endomyocardial
biopsy can be used to evaluate biochemical and
structural myocardial changes in dogs with cardiac
disease. (Am J Vet Res 2001;62:889–894)