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  • Author or Editor: Cécile Clercx x
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Abstract

Objective—To validate a radioimmunoassay for measurement of procollagen type III amino terminal propeptide (PIIINP) concentrations in canine serum and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and investigate the effects of physiologic and pathologic conditions on PIIINP concentrations.

Sample Population—Sera from healthy adult (n = 70) and growing dogs (20) and dogs with chronic renal failure (CRF; 10), cardiomyopathy (CMP; 12), or degenerative valve disease (DVD; 26); and sera and BALF from dogs with chronic bronchopneumopathy (CBP; 15) and healthy control dogs (10 growing and 9 adult dogs).

Procedure—A radioimmunoassay was validated, and a reference range for serum PIIINP (S-PIIINP) concentration was established. Effects of growth, age, sex, weight, CRF, and heart failure on S-PIIINP concentration were analyzed. In CBP-affected dogs, S-PIIINP and BALF-PIIINP concentrations were evaluated.

Results—The radioimmunoassay had good sensitivity, linearity, precision, and reproducibility and reasonable accuracy for measurement of S-PIIINP and BALF-PIIINP concentrations. The S-PIIINP concentration reference range in adult dogs was 8.86 to 11.48 μg/L. Serum PIIINP concentration correlated with weight and age. Growing dogs had significantly higher S-PIIINP concentrations than adults, but concentrations in CRF-, CMP-, DVD-, or CBP-affected dogs were not significantly different from control values. Mean BALF-PIIINP concentration was significantly higher in CBP-affected dogs than in healthy adults.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—In dogs, renal or cardiac disease or CBP did not significantly affect S-PIIINP concentration; dogs with CBP had high BALF-PIIINP concentrations. Data suggest that the use of PIIINP as a marker of pathologic fibrosis might be limited in growing dogs.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To determine effectiveness of infusion of 1 and 2% enilconazole for treatment of nasal and sinusal aspergillosis, respectively, in dogs.

Design—Case series.

Animals—26 client-owned dogs with aspergillosis.

Procedure—All dogs had typical clinical signs of aspergillosis and rhinoscopically visible intrasinusal or intranasal fungal plaques associated with turbinate destruction. During rhinoscopy, affected nasal cavities and frontal sinuses were debrided meticulously. Nineteen dogs (group A) were treated with 1% enilconazole by use of a modified noninvasive infusion procedure. Seven dogs (group B) were treated with 2% enilconazole via catheters that were placed via endoscopic guidance into the frontal sinuses. All dogs underwent follow-up rhinoscopy for determination of further treatment until cure was established.

Results—Age, disease duration, clinical score, and rhinoscopic score were similar for both groups before treatment. In group A, 17 of 19 dogs were cured; 9, 6, and 2 dogs were cured after 1, 2, or 3 treatments, respectively. The remaining 2 dogs were euthanatized before the end of the treatment protocol. In group B, all dogs were cured; 6 dogs and 1 dog were cured after 1 or 2 treatments, respectively. Only minor adverse effects such as nasal discharge, epistaxis, and sneezing developed.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—After extensive rhinoscopic debridement, 1 and 2% enilconazole infused into the nasal cavities and the frontal sinuses, respectively, were effective for treatment of aspergillosis in dogs. Intrasinusal administration via endoscopically placed catheters appeared to require fewer infusions for success. Follow-up rhinoscopy is strongly advised. (J Am Med Vet Assoc 2002;221:1421–1425)

Restricted access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To assess the influence of age on pulmonary hemodynamics and hemorheological properties in healthy dogs.

Animals—14 healthy Beagles.

Procedures—Dogs were placed in 2 age groups as follows: young dogs (≤ 5 years old; n = 8) and old dogs (≥ 8 years old; 6). Hematologic characteristics, plasma total protein and fibrinogen concentrations, and blood viscosity were measured. Systolic time intervals of pulmonary blood flow were recorded by pulsed-wave Doppler echocardiography. Early (E′) and late (A′) diastolic myocardial velocities, isovolumic contraction velocity, and systolic myocardial velocity of the free tricuspid annulus were recorded by pulsed-wave tissue Doppler imaging (TDI). Dogs were anesthetized and pulmonary arterial pressures (PAP) and cardiac output were recorded with a pediatric thermodilution Swan-Ganz catheter.

Results—Hemorheological measurements were not different between the 2 groups. Systolic, mean, and diastolic PAP were higher in old dogs, compared with values in young dogs; this difference was attributed to a high pulmonary vascular resistance and low arterial compliance in old dogs. Systolic time intervals of pulmonary blood flow stayed unchanged. The A′ wave of the free tricuspid annulus was increased in old, compared with that young dogs, and the E′:A′ ratio was decreased. Pulmonary vascular resistance was inversely correlated with compliance.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—The age of dogs should be taken into account when interpreting pulmonary hemodynamic results and TDI variables of right ventricular diastolic function.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To determine whether dobutamine stress tests (DST) can be used to detect cardiac dysfunction in dogs with early left ventricular dysfunction (ELVD) induced by rapid right ventricular pacing (RRVP).

Animals—7 adult male Beagles.

Procedure—A pacemaker was surgically implanted in each dog at the level of the right ventricular apex. Electrocardiography, Doppler sphygmomanometry, and Doppler echocardiography were performed before and during a DST prior to activation of the pacemaker and every 3 to 4 days during the period of RRVP. Dobutamine stress tests were performed by infusing dobutamine at incremental dosages ranging from 12.5 to 42.5 µg/kg of body weight/min.

Results—Clinical signs of congestive heart failure were not observed during the pacing period. However, all dogs developed ELVD associated with significant changes in values for most Doppler echocardiographic variables obtained prior to DST. Adverse cardiac effects were not detected during DST. Most Doppler echocardiographic indices of cardiac function were significantly altered in response to dobutamine infusion during the pacing period, compared with prepacing values. However, a dobutamine-induced 2-fold increase in cardiac output was maintained.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Dobutamine stress tests can be safely performed in dogs with experimentally induced ELVD. Dobutamine stress tests may be a sensitive, noninvasive diagnostic method, complementary to standard clinical examinations, for detection of early cardiac dysfunction in dogs asymptomatic for dilated cardiomyopathy. (Am J Vet Res 2001;62:448–455)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To determine radiographic, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), computed tomography (CT), and rhinoscopic features of nasal aspergillosis in dogs.

Design—Prospective study.

Animals—15 client-owned dogs.

Procedure—All dogs had clinical signs of chronic nasal disease; the diagnosis of nasal aspergillosis was made on the basis of positive results for at least 2 diagnostic tests (serology, cytology, histology, or fungal culture) and detection of typical intrasinusal and intranasal fungal colonies and turbinate destruction via rhinoscopy. Radiography, MRI, and CT were performed under general anesthesia. Rhinoscopy was repeated to evaluate lesions and initiate treatment. Findings of radiography, MRI, CT, and rhinoscopy were compared.

Results—MRI and CT revealed lesions suggestive of nasal aspergillosis more frequently than did radiography. Computed tomography was the best technique for detection of cortical bone lesions; the nature of abnormal soft tissue, however, could not be identified. Magnetic resonance imaging allowed evaluation of lesions of the frontal bone and was especially useful for differentiating between a thickened mucosa and secretions or fungal colonies; however, fungal colonies could not be differentiated from secretions. Rhinoscopy allowed identification of the nature of intranasal and intrasinusal soft tissue but was not as useful as CT and MRI for defining the extent of lesions and provided no information regarding bone lesions.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—The value of CT and MRI for diagnosis of nasal aspergillosis was similar and greater than that of radiography. Rhinoscopy is necessary because it is the only technique that allows direct visualization of fungal colonies. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2004;225:1703–1712)

Restricted access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To assess morphologic and metabolic abnormalities in dogs with early left ventricular dysfunction (ELVD) induced by rapid right ventricular pacing (RRVP).

Animals—7 Beagles.

Procedure—Plasma carnitine concentrations were measured before and after development of ELVD induced by RRVP. At the same times, transvenous endomyocardial biopsy was performed, and specimens were submitted for determination of myocardial carnitine concentrations and histologic, morphometric, and ultrastructural examination.

Results—In 4 dogs in which baseline plasma total carnitine concentration was normal, RRVP induced a decrease in myocardial total and free carnitine concentrations and an increase in myocardial esterified carnitine concentration. In 3 dogs in which baseline plasma total carnitine concentration was low, plasma and myocardial carnitine concentrations were unchanged after pacing. Structural changes associated with pacing included perinuclear vacuolization in 3 dogs. Morphometric analyses indicated there was a decrease in myofiber cross-sectional diameter and area following pacing. Electron microscopy revealed changes in myofibrils and mitochondria following pacing.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results indicated that moderate to severe alterations in myocyte cytoarchitecture are present in dogs with ELVD induced by RRVP and that in dogs with normal plasma carnitine concentrations, myocardial carnitine deficiency may be a biochemical marker of ELVD. Results also indicated that transvenous endomyocardial biopsy can be used to evaluate biochemical and structural myocardial changes in dogs with cardiac disease. (Am J Vet Res 2001;62:889–894)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research