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Summary

The capability of diclazuril, a benzeneacetonitrile anticoccidial agent, to inhibit development of tachyzoites of Toxoplasma gondii was examined in cultured human foreskin fibroblast cells and in Hsd:ICR mice. Treatment of infected cell cultures with 10.0, 1.0, 0.1 or 0.01 μg of diclazuril/ml for 3 days resulted in > 99% reduction in tachyzoite counts, compared with controls. Treatment with 0.005 μg of diclazuril/ml resulted in > 97% reduction in tachyzoite counts, compared with controls. Treatment of host cells with 10.0, 1.0, 0.1, and 0.01 μg of diclazuril/ml for 24 hours prior to tachyzoite inoculation resulted in 97, 31, 0, and 0% reduction in tachyzoite counts, compared with controls, respectively, 3 days after inoculation. All mice that were treated orally with 10.0 mg of diclazuril/kg of body weight and 80% of mice treated orally with 1.0 mg of diclazuril/kg 1 day prior to and for 10 days after tachyzoite inoculation were protected against acute toxoplasmosis. Mice treated with 10.0 mg of diclazuril/kg did not develop protective immunity, whereas mice treated with 1.0 mg of diclazuril/kg survived challenge exposure.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

SUMMARY

The ultrastructure of Isospora suis sporozoites, type-1 meronts, and type-1 merozoites was examined, using transmission electron microscopy of infected cultured cells. The ultrastructure of sporozoites and type-1 merozoites was similar. Each possessed trimembranous pellicles, subpellicular microtubules, a conoid, anterior and posterior polar rings, rhoptries, micronemes, a single vesicular nucleus, tubular mitochondria, Golgi complexes, ribo-somes, endoplasmic reticula, inactive micropores, amylopectin bodies, lipid bodies, dense bodies, and crystalloid bodies. Merozoites were produced by endodyogeny. Ultrastructural events associated with merozoite production by type-1 meronts are described.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objectives

To identify the lowest single dose of lufenuron injected SC that results in a 90% disruption of the flea (Ctenocephalides felis) life cycle for 6 months in cats.

Animals

40 domestic shorthair cats (20 males, 20 females) between 5 and 7 months old.

Procedure

Cats were randomly assigned to 1 of 5 eight-cat groups and experimentally infested with C felis on days −8, −7, −6, and −4. On day 0, cats in the 4 treatment groups were treated with an injectable formulation of lufenuron at doses of 2.5, 5, 10, or 20 mg/kg of body weight, respectively. Control cats received the injectable formulation without lufenuron. Experimental infestations were repeated and flea eggs collected at various intervals for 196 days after treatment. Eggs were placed in media and incubated in an insectary for 28 days to determine effects of injectable lufenuron on egg and larval development. Number of adults that emerged from eggs were compared among groups.

Results

Lufenuron injected once at a dose of 10 or 20 mg/kg, but not at 2.5 or 5 mg/kg, resulted in a 90% decrease in number of adult fleas emerging from eggs for 196 days after treatment.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance

Results indicate that control of flea egg and larval development for at least 6 months can be achieved in cats with a single SC injection of lufenuron (10 mg/kg). The injectable formulation may provide veterinarians and cat owners an alternative to the tablet formulation of lufenuron. (Am J Vet Res 1999;60:1513–1515)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective

To examine the efficacies of combinations of 7 sulfonamides and 5 dihydrofolate reductase/thymidylate synthase (DHFR/TS) inhibitors against tachyzoites of Neospora caninum in cultured cells. Mutant tachyzoites that were resistant to pyrimethamine were produced and examined for resistance to other DHFR/TS inhibitors.

Design and Procedures

After 5 days of treatment, a cell culture flask lesion-based assay was used to determine efficacies of combinations of sulfonamides and DHFR/TS inhibitors against N caninum tachyzoites and to evaluate the sensitivity of pyrimethamine-resistant mutants of N caninum to test agents. Cultured cells that were infected with the appropriate strains of N caninum and treated or not treated (controls) with test agents were examined. Mutations were induced by chemical mutagenesis with N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidme or by selection for growth in permissive concentration of pyrimethamine.

Results

Synergism was detected for combinations of pyrimethamine, ormetoprim, trimethoprim, or diaveridine with the sulfonamides. Methotrexate did not have improved efficacy when combined with sulfonamides. Two mutants were produced that were resistant to pyrimethamine. Both mutants were resistant to other DHFR/TS inhibitors. Both mutants remained resistant to pyrimethamine in the absence of continuous exposure to the agent, indicating that the induced resistance was stable. Synergism was detected for combinations of DHFR/TS inhibitors and sulfonamides against these pyrimethamine-resistant mutants.

Conclusions

Combinations of suboptimal concentrations of sulfonamides with suboptimal concentrations of DHFR/TS inhibitors results in improved efficacy of the agents in a cell culture assay. Stable resistance to pyrimethamine can be induced in N caninum tachyzoites by use of chemical mutagenesis or by selection.

Clinical Relevance

In vitro evidence indicated that combination treatment, using sulfonamides and DHFR/TS inhibitors, may be effective in treating neosporosis. (Am J Vet Res 1996;57:68-72)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Objective—

To document hepatozoonosis in dogs from Alabama and Georgia and to report associated clinical signs, method of diagnosis, response to treatment, and course of disease.

Design—

Retrospective case series.

Animals—

22 dogs in which Hepatozoon canis was identified by microscopic examination of skeletal muscle.

Procedure—

We reviewed medical records of all dogs with a definitive diagnosis of hepatozoonosis that were referred to the Auburn University Small Animal Clinic between 1989 and 1994.

Results—

Diagnoses were confirmed by microscopic identification of H canis schizont or merozoite stages in skeletal muscle. The gametocyte stage was not detected in smears of blood obtained from a peripheral vein, buffy-coat smears, or bone marrow evaluation. Common clinical signs included fever, cachexia, ocular discharge, pain, stiffness, and paresis. Laboratory abnormalities included marked leukocytosis, hypoglycemia, hypoalbuminemia, mild anemia, hyperphosphatemia, and high alkaline phosphatase activity. Periosteal bone proliferation was evident radiographically in 18 of 22 dogs. Renal lesions included amyloidosis (1 dog), interstitial nephritis (3), and mesangioproliferative glomerulonephritis (4). Treatment with the anticoccidial drug toltrazuril, despite an initial favorable response, failed to prevent relapse in all but 3 of 21 treated dogs. Mean survival time was 12.6 ± 2.2 months, with a mean time of remission before recurrence of clinical signs of 6 months.

Clinical Implications—

H canis infection in dogs can be associated with a distinct clinical syndrome that involves chronic myositis, debilitation, and death. The dogs of this report represent the first substantial number of domestic dogs naturally infected with H canis in the United States outside of the Texas Gulf Coast. Hepatozoon canis appears to be a serious pathogen in the United States that is becoming more widespread geographically. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 1997;210:916–922)

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Summary

Neospora caninum causes serious disease in dogs, and it, or a similar parasite, is a major cause of abortion in cattle. Little is known about the susceptibility of this protozoan to antimicrobial agents. We studied several antimicrobial agents to determine which classes might have activity against this parasite. We also determined whether activity of such agents was coccidiocidal or coccidiostatic. A 2-day of treatment, monoclonal antibody-based enzyme immunoassay and a 5-day of treatment, cell culture flask (ccf), lesion-based assay were developed to examine the ability of test agents to inhibit tachyzoite multiplication. Seven sulfonamides were examined, with the following activities observed: sulfathiazole ≥ sulfamethoxazole > sulfadiazine > sulfaquinoxaline ≥ sulfamethazine > sulfadimethoxine > sulfamerazine. Dapsone, a sulfone, had little activity. Six dihydrofolate reductase/thymidylate synthase inhibitors were examined, with the following activities observed: piritrexim > pyrimethamine > ormetoprim > trimethoprim = diaveridine > methotrexate. Six ionophorous antibiotics were examined; lasalocid, maduramicin, monensin, narasin, and salinomycin had equivalent activities, but alborixin was toxic for host cells at the lowest concentration examined. Three macrolide antibiotics—azithromycin, clarithromycin, and erythromycin—were examined and had equivalent activities. Two tetracycline antibiotics, doxycycline and minocycline, were examined and had equivalent activities. Three lincosamide antibiotics were examined, with the following activities observed: clindamycin hydrochloride > clindamycin phosphate > lincomycin hydrochloride. Pentamidine and 6 of its analogs were examined, and only hexamidine and 1,4-Di[4-(2-imidazolinyl)-2-methoxy-phenoxy]butane had activity. Eight miscellaneous antiprotozoal agents were examined for activity. Amprolium, metronidazole, paromomycin, and roxarsone had little activity. Arprinocid, diclazuril, nitrofurazone, and robenidine had good activity. Eleven agents were examined in both assays, whereas 32 agents were examined in the ccf assay only. The enzyme immunoassay and ccf assay provided similar results for agents that rapidly killed tachyzoites. However, agents that inhibited development, but were not rapidly fatal for tachyzoites, had better activity in the ccf assay. Of the classes of agents examined, the dihydrofolate reductase/thymidylate synthase inhibitors, 2 of the 6 pentamidine analogs, and the ionophores were coccidiocidal and the sulfonamides, macrolides, tetracyclines, and lincosamides were coccidiostatic. Of the miscellaneous agents examined, arprinocid, nitrofurazone, and robenidine were coccidiocidal and diclazuril was coccidiostatic.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Summary

A murine monoclonal antibody (mab) 6G7 generated against tachyzoites of Neospora caninum recognized 8 major and several minor antigens, as observed by western blot analysis. Relative rate of migration of the 8 major antigens ranged from 31 to 97.4 kd. In addition, mab 6G7 recognized a Toxoplasma gondii tachyzoite antigen with a relative rate of migration of 107 kd. Immunogold labeling of N caninum tachyzoites grown in human foreskin fibroblast cells indicated that mab 6G7 binds to micronemes, dense granules, basal portions of rhoptries, and intravacuolar tubules within the parasitophorous vacuole. Monoclonal antibody 6G7 also bound to micronemes and basal portions of rhoptries within tachyzoites of T gondii. Monoclonal antibody 6G7 did not significantly inhibit development of tachyzoites in vitro.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Summary

The efficacy of milbemycin oxime was evaluated at dosages of 0.25, 0.50 and 0.75 mg/kg of body weight in dogs naturally infected with mature Ancylostoma spp, at a dosage of 0.50 mg/kg in dogs with experimentally induced immature and mature A caninum, and at dosages of 0.55 to 0.86 mg/kg in dogs naturally infected with mature Trichuris vulpis. Milbemycin oxime was 95 and 99% effective against mature Ancylostoma spp at dosages of 0.50 and 0.75 mg/kg, respectively, but only 49% effective at a dosage of 0.25 mg/kg. Efficacy was 49% against pulmonary L3-L4 stages of A caninum (36 hours after inoculation), > 80% against L4 (120 hours after inoculation) and early L5 stages (216 hours after inoculation), and > 90% against experimentally induced mature stages (360 hours after inoculation). Milbemycin oxime was also 97% effective in the removal of mature Tr vulpis from naturally infected dogs. Adverse reactions were not observed following treatment in any of the dogs.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Case Description—A 21-month-old spayed female Border Collie was examined because of progressive right forelimb lameness, signs of pain, and subcutaneous edema. The dog lived in a fenced yard in Tampa, Fla, that contained a small area of marshy terrain.

Clinical Findings—The subcutis and intermuscular fascia contained multiple cystic cavities filled with larval cestodes (plerocercoids or spargana) and cloudy red fluid. Parasites were identified morphologically and by DNA sequence analysis as pseudophyllidean cestodes, most likely Sparganum proliferum. The dog developed a progressively worsening fever, dyspnea, mature neutrophilia, and hypoproteinemia. Septic pleuritis and peritonitis complicated the later stages of the disease.

Treatment and Outcome—Treatment with praziquantel, fenbendazole, and nitazoxanide failed to control the proliferation and dissemination of larval cestodes. The dog was euthanatized after 133 days of treatment. At necropsy, numerous parasitic tissue cysts were present in the subcutis and intermuscular fascia; these cysts were most abundant in the soft tissues of the forelimbs and cervical musculature. The pleural and peritoneal cavities contained multiple larval cestodes and were characterized by neutrophilic inflammation and secondary bacterial infection.

Clinical Relevance—Findings indicated that clinical signs associated with proliferative sparganosis in dogs may be rapidly progressive and that the condition may be refractory to antiparasitic treatment. Veterinarians should be aware of this zoonotic, water-borne agent.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association