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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association


To determine a dose of medetomidine that will induce sedation in llamas, to assess effects of medetomidine sedation on arterial blood gas variables, and to determine efficacy of atipamezole in reversing medetomidine-induced sedation.


Prospective, randomized clinical trial.


15 clinically normal adult llamas.


9 llamas received various doses of medetomidine (0.01, 0.02, or 0.03 mg/kg [0.005, 0.009, or 0.014 mg/lb] of body weight, IM). Heart and respiratory rates and sedative effects were recorded. Using the lowest dose that induced deep sedation, 6 different llamas were used to assess effects of medetomidine on arterial blood gas variables. These same 6 llamas were later given atipamezole (0.125 mg/kg [0.057 mg/lb], IV) 30 minutes after medetomidine injection. Heart and respiratory rates, sedative effects, and time from atipamezole injection to standing were recorded.


Sedation began 6.67 ± 1.15 minutes (mean ± SD) after medetomidine administration (0.03 mg/kg, IM). Arterial blood gas variables measured 30 and 60 minutes after injection were not different from baseline. Llamas that did not receive atipamezole remained recumbent for 91.50 ± 24.68 minutes. After atipamezole administration, llamas were able to stand in 5.80 ± 3.27 minutes.

Clinical Implications

Medetomidine induced light to deep sedation in a dose-dependent manner in clinically normal llamas. A dose of 0.03 mg/kg induced deep sedation with a short period of analgesia. Atipamezole rapidly reversed effects of medetomidine, and llamas recovered quickly and were soon able to stand. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 1997;211:1562–1565)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association


Objective—To evaluate the cardiopulmonary and clinicopathologic effects of rapid IV administration of dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) in awake and halothaneanesthetized horses.

Design—Prospective study.

Animals—6 adult horses.

Procedures—Horses received IV infusion of 5 L of a balanced electrolyte solution with and without 1 g/kg (0.45 g/lb) of 10% DMSO solution when they were awake and anesthetized with halothane (4 treatments/ horse). Arterial and venous blood samples were collected immediately before and at intervals during or after fluid administration and analyzed for blood gases and hematologic and serum biochemical variables, respectively. Heart rate, respiratory rate, and arterial blood pressure variables were recorded prior to, during, and after fluid administration.

Results—After administration of fluid with or without DMSO, changes in measured variables were detected immediately, but most variables returned to baseline values within 4 hours. One awake control horse had signs of anxiety; agitation and tachycardia were detected in 2 awake horses administered DMSO. These clinical signs disappeared when the rate of infusion was reduced. In anesthetized horses, increased concentrations of WBCs and plasma fibrinogen and serum creatine kinase activity persisted for 24 hours, which was related to the stress of anesthesia more than the effects of fluid administration.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Infusion of 5 L of balanced electrolyte solution with or without 10% DMSO induced minimal changes in cardiopulmonary function and clinicopathologic variables in either awake or halothane-anesthetized horses. Stress associated with anesthesia and recovery had a greater influence on measured variables in anesthetized horses than fluid administration. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2004;225:560–566)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association



To assess the relationship between plasma and RBC fatty acid composition and incidence and severity of squamous gastric ulcers when altered by short-chain (SC) or long-chain (LC) polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) supplementation.


13 fit Thoroughbred horses in training.


Horses were evaluated by gastroscopy for squamous ulcer score, gastric pH, and blood fatty acid composition prior to supplementation (UNSUPP) and after 3 months of supplementation with a corn-flax oil blend of alpha-linolenic acid and linoleic acid (SC-PUFA) or a gamma-linolenic acid (GLA)-fish oil blend of GLA, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; LC-PUFA) in a crossover design. Prior to gastroscopy and blood collection, horses performed a 4,600-m standardized exercise test on the racetrack as a stressor.


Three months of supplementation with LC-PUFAs increased RBC levels of GLA, dihomo-gamma-linolenic acid (DGLA), arachidonic acid (AA), EPA, and DHA, and reduced severe ulcer prevalence (38% UNSUPP vs 8% LC-PUFA with a severe ulcer score of grade 3 to 4). Short-chain PUFA supplementation did not effectively elevate RBC GLA, DGLA, AA, EPA, or DHA and severe ulcer incidence was not different (38% UNSUPP vs 23% SC-PUFA with a severe ulcer score of grade 3 to 4). Lower levels of RBC GLA, DGLA, AA, and EPA correlated with severe squamous gastric ulceration (grade 3 to 4).


Equine gastric ulcer syndrome is prevalent in high-performance horses and is a concern to owners and trainers. Long-chain PUFA supplementation increased levels of GLA, DGLA, AA, EPA, and DHA, unlike SC-PUFA supplementation, and was associated positively with prevention or resolution of severe squamous gastric ulceration. Further studies are needed to evaluate different management styles and exercise intensities.

Open access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association


Case Description—A 7-year-old 509-kg (1,120-lb) Tennessee Walking Horse mare was evaluated because of bilateral mucosanguinous nasal discharge, intermittent right-sided epistaxis, and worsening dyspnea of 9 months' duration.

Clinical Findings—Multiple masses in the nasopharynx were detected via endoscopic and radiographic examinations. Cytologic and histologic examinations of biopsy specimens of 1 mass revealed round yeasts with thick nonstaining capsules and occasional narrow-based budding that resembled cryptococcal organisms.

Treatment and Outcome—Oral administration of fluconazole and organic ethylenediamine dihydriodide and intermittent intralesional injections with fluconazole, amphotericin B, and formalin resulted in resolution of lesions for a period of 2.5 years. The horse then developed exophthalmos, recurring clinical signs, and extensive nasopharyngeal masses. The masses were surgically debulked via a large frontonasal bone flap, and the horse was treated with IV injections of amphotericin B and long-term oral administration of fluconazole. Clinical signs did not recur in the following 2-year period. A presumptive diagnosis of cryptococcosis was made following cytologic and histologic evaluations of the masses; results of serologic analysis and fungal culture confirmed infection with Cryptococcus neoformans.

Clinical Relevance—Cryptococcal infection of the upper respiratory tract in horses has previously been described as a uniformly fatal disease. As this case report illustrates, medical and surgical treatment of sinonasal cryptococcal granulomas in horses may be successful, but the importance of long-term follow-up and the potential for disease recrudescence should be considered. As efficacious antifungal agents become less expensive, their increased use will likely decrease mortality rates in horses with fungal infections.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association