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  • Author or Editor: Bruno Ronchi x
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Abstract

Objective—To evaluate vaccine safety, antibody response, and nonspecific lymphocyte blastogenesis following inoculation of a commercial monovalent live attenuated bluetongue virus (BTV) serotype 2 vaccine in goats.

Animals—12 nonpregnant and nonlactating Saanen goats.

Procedure—6 goats were inoculated with the monovalent live attenuated BTV serotype 2 vaccine, which has been widely used in Italy during the proceding 2 years. The other 6 goats were unvaccinated and represented negative controls. Nonspecific lymphocyte blastogenesis was evaluated 14 and 7 days before and 7, 21, and 49 days after vaccination by measuring DNA synthesis in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) stimulated with phytohemagglutinin, concanavalin-A, and pokeweed mitogen. On the same days as lymphocyte blastogenesis, blood samples were taken to determine serum concentrations of anti-BTV antibodies.

Results—During the 7 weeks following vaccination, PBMCs obtained from vaccinated goats had a significantly decreased response to mitogens in terms of DNA synthesis, compared with PBMCs from the same goats before vaccination. Conversely during the experiment, no significant change was found in the response of the PBMCs obtained from unvaccinated goats. Starting from 21 days after vaccination, serum from vaccinated goats had anti-BTV antibodies. No anti-BTV antibodies were detected in the serum from unvaccinated goats.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Inoculation of goats with the monovalent live attenuated BTV serotype 2 vaccine described herein resulted in a profound depression of nonspecific lymphocyte blastogenesis, which might compromise the resistance of vaccinated goats to pathogens. (Am J Vet Res 2004;65:1331–1334)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To determine the effects of moderate feed restriction, single or twin pregnancy, and subclinical pregnancy toxemia (PT) on immune responses of ewes.

Animals—16 Sardinian ewes.

Procedure—Six weeks before lambing, ewes were assigned to 1 of 2 groups (n = 8/group) matched for number of fetuses, body condition score, and plasma glucose, non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA), and β- hydroxybutyrate (BHBA) concentrations, and feed intake was restricted for 1 of the groups. Cell-mediated immunity was evaluated in vivo and in vitro. Humoral immunity was evaluated in vivo by determining production of IgG antibodies against keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH).

Results—Four ewes developed subclinical PT (plasma BHBA concentration > 0.86 mmol/L without any clinical signs of disease). Whether feed was restricted and type of pregnancy (single vs twin) did not have any significant effects on cell-mediated and humoral immune responses. Ewes with subclinical PT had significantly lower in vitro proliferation of phytohemagglutinin- stimulated peripheral blood mononuclear cells and significantly lower values for KLH-specific IgG than did healthy ewes. Plasma BHBA and NEFA concentrations were negatively correlated with in vitro proliferation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells; plasma NEFA concentration was negatively correlated with values for KLH-specific IgG.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest that subclinical PT may be associated with impairments in cell-mediated and humoral immune responses in sheep. Am J Vet Res 2001;62:1020–1024)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To assess the effects of nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA) and β-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA) on functions of mononuclear cells obtained from ewes.

Animals—6 Sardinian ewes.

Procedure—Mononuclear cells were cultured with concentrations of NEFA (0, 15.6, 31.2, 62.5, 125, 250, 500, 1,000, or 2,000 µmol/L) and BHBA (0, 0.45, 0.9, 1.8, or 3.6 mmol/L). Concentrations of NEFA and BHBA were intended to mimic those of ketotic or healthy ewes, and NEFA and BHBA were tested alone and in combination. Synthesis of DNA was stimulated by use of concanavalin A (Con A) or pokeweed-mitogen (PWM). Secretion of IgM was stimulated by use of PWM.

Results—Synthesis of DNA stimulated by Con A and PWM was significantly inhibited by high concentrations of NEFA (≥ 250 µmol/L) or by a combination of high concentrations of NEFA (≥ 250 µmol/L) and all concentrations of BHBA (≥ 0.45 mmol/L). In contrast, DNA synthesis was not inhibited by low concentrations of NEFA (≤ 125 µmol/L) or by a combination of low concentrations of NEFA (≤ 125 µmol/L) and the lowest concentration of BHBA (0.45 mmol/L). Secretion of IgM was significantly inhibited by all concentrations of NEFA and by all combinations of NEFA and BHBA concentrations. When used alone, none of the concentrations of BHBA inhibited DNA synthesis or IgM secretion.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Reduced immunoresponsiveness during ketosis is likely to be associated with an increase in plasma concentration of NEFA and not with an increase in plasma concentration of BHBA. (Am J Vet Res 2002;63:414–418)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To assess effects on functions of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) obtained from ewes for each of several fatty acids represented in ovine plasma at concentrations mimicking those of ketotic or healthy ewes.

Sample Population—Blood samples obtained from 6 Sardinian ewes.

Procedure—The PBMC were cultured in media that contained oleic (OA), palmitic (PA), stearic (SA), linoleic (LA), or palmitoleic (POA) acid at concentrations similar to those of ketotic or healthy ewes. Synthesis of DNA was stimulated by use of concanavalin A or pokeweed mitogen (PWM). Secretion of IgM was stimulated by use of PWM.

Results—High concentrations (900, 450, and 225 µmol/L) of OA significantly inhibited DNA synthesis and IgM secretion of PBMC. Conversely, low concentrations (56 or 28 µmol/L) of OA significantly enhanced DNA synthesis of PBMC. High concentrations of PA (600, 300, 150, 75, 37.5, or 18.7 µmol/L) and SA (300, 150, or 75 µmol/L) significantly inhibited DNA synthesis of PBMC. High concentrations of PA (600, 300, 150, 75, 37.5, or 18.7 µmol/L) and SA (300, 150, 75, or 38 µmol/L) also significantly inhibited IgM secretion of PBMC. None of the concentrations of LA and POA affected PBMC functions.

Conclusion and Clinical Relevance—Impaired immunoresponsiveness of ketotic ewes is likely associated with an increase of plasma concentrations of OA, PA, or SA and not with that of LA or POA. At physiologic concentrations, single fatty acids are likely to participate in modulation of immunoresponsiveness by exerting suppressive or stimulatory effects on immune cells. (Am J Vet Res 2002;63:958–962)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research