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To document any discordance between the set temperature and independently measured temperature of neonatal incubators in order to determine the potential of neonatal incubators to cause hypothermia or hyperthermia in neonatal animals.


5 different veterinary neonatal incubators from 2 separate manufacturers.


Internal temperatures of 5 incubators from 2 manufacturers were monitored with both internal and external monitoring devices to determine how much incubator temperatures might vary from what is reported on the incubator thermostat. The study was conducted on May 25, 2022.


Increases in temperature as measured by thermocouple and infrared sensors of > 2 °C were detected in 3 of the 5 (60%; 95% CI, 17% to 93%) tested incubators. Temperatures exceeded 41 °C at times, despite the incubator thermostat being set to 35 °C.


Neonatal puppies have a decreased capacity to thermoregulate and are susceptible to both hypothermia and hyperthermia if environmental temperatures are not kept within a proper range. Core temperatures below 35.0 °C lead to bradycardia, dyspnea, loss of suckle reflex, hypoglycemia, gastrointestinal ileus, and multiple organ failure; temperatures above 41.1 °C lead to pulmonary edema, petechial and ecchymotic hemorrhage in multiple organs, and death.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association


Case Description—A 4-year-old Thoroughbred mare was evaluated because of placental abnormalities and a retained placental remnant.

Clinical Findings—Microbial culture of the placenta yielded pure growth of Amycolatopsis spp. Histologic examination of the placenta revealed a focally expanding chorionitis with intralesional gram-positive filamentous bacilli and multifocal allantoic adenomatous hyperplasia on the apposing allantoic surface.

Treatment and Outcome—Treatment with lavage and oxytocin resulted in expulsion of the placental remnant within hours of parturition. The mare did not become pregnant again despite multiple breedings. The foal appeared healthy but died of complications during an elective surgical procedure at 7 weeks of age.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—To the author's knowledge, all previously confirmed cases of nocardioform placentitis have been in mares bred in the central Kentucky region. Indications that the pathogen in the mare reported here is a different species than that isolated in Kentucky suggest that this is an emerging disease. Mares with nocardioform placentitis usually do not have the same clinical signs as mares with placentitis resulting from an ascending pathogen.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association


Case Description—A 19-year-old Thoroughbred mare was evaluated at 265 days of gestation with a markedly distended abdomen and edema of the ventral portion of the abdomen.

Clinical Findings—The uterus was distended over the pelvic rim, making transrectal palpation of the fetus impossible. Transabdominal ultrasonography revealed excessive amounts of fetal fluid. Results of analysis of fluid obtained via amnio- and allantocentesis confirmed that the amniotic cavity was large.

Treatment and Outcome—The mare was monitored for signs of weakness of the prepubic tendon and abdominal wall. The fetus and placenta were monitored for signs of stress and pending abortion. Flunixin meglumine and altrenogest were administered to the mare. Parturition was attended and occurred at 321 days' gestation. Postpartum complications in the mare included hypovolemic shock and cardiac arrhythmias. Both conditions were treated, and the mare recovered. The foal was considered small, had bilateral angular limb deformities, and was unable to nurse. The foal was given plasma for failure of passive transfer of immunity. Ten months later, the foal underwent procedures to correct limb deformities.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Hydrops conditions are rare in horses, with hydrops allantois occurring more frequently than hydrops amnion; reportedly result in fetal or neonatal death; and may result in death of or injury to the mare. Close monitoring of maternal and fetal health in combination with supportive treatment of the mare can result in the safe progression of a hydrops pregnancy and the birth of a live foal.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association