Search Results

You are looking at 1 - 6 of 6 items for

  • Author or Editor: Bruce R. Madewell x
  • Refine by Access: All Content x
Clear All Modify Search

Abstract

Objective—To describe diseases, prognosis, and clinical outcomes associated with extreme neutrophilic leukocytosis in cats.

Design—Retrospective study.

Animals—104 cats with extreme neutrophilic leukocytosis.

Procedure—Medical records from 1991 to 1999 were examined to identify cats that had ≥ 50,000 WBC/µl with ≥ 50% neutrophils. Signalment, absolute and differential WBC counts, rectal temperature, clinical or pathologic diagnosis, duration and cost of hospitalization, and survival time were reviewed.

Results—Mean age of cats was 8.3 years, mean WBC count was 73,055 cells/µl, and mean absolute neutrophil count was 59,046 cells/µl. Mean duration of hospitalization was 5.9 days, and mean cost of hospitalization was $2,010. Twenty-nine (28%) cats were febrile, and 63 (61%) cats died. Overall median survival time was 30 days. Cats with neoplasia were nearly 14 times as likely to die unexpectedly as cats with other diseases.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Extreme neutrophilic leukocytosis was associated with a high mortality rate. The prognostic importance of extreme neutrophilic leukocytosis should not be overlooked. Cats and dogs have similar diseases, mortality rates, and treatment costs associated with extreme neutrophilic leukocytosis. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2001;218:736–739)

Restricted access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To determine whether there was a decline in the percentage of dogs undergoing necropsies and whether there was substantial agreement or disagreement between clinical and pathologic diagnoses.

Design—Retrospective study.

Animals—623 dogs.

Procedure—Medical records of hospitalized dogs that died or were euthanatized and necropsied at a veterinary teaching hospital in 1989 and 1999 were reviewed. Clinical and pathologic diagnoses were recorded and compared.

Results—There was a significant decline in the necropsy rate of hospitalized dogs that died or were euthanatized in 1999, compared with 1989. In both 1989 and 1999, there was disagreement between the clinical and pathologic diagnoses in approximately a third of the cases.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Despite improved diagnostic methods, the accuracy of diagnosis did not improve significantly in 1999, compared with 1989. Necropsy is the best method to assess overall diagnostic accuracy. Increased availability of teaching funds may promote efforts to have necropsies performed in veterinary teaching hospitals. ( J Am Vet Med Assoc 2004;224:403–406)

Restricted access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To determine the incidence of bovine papillomavirus (BPV) type 1 or 2 in sarcoids and other samples of cutaneous tissues collected from horses in the western United States.

Animals—55 horses with sarcoids and 12 horses without sarcoids.

Procedure—Tissue samples (tumor and normal skin from horses with sarcoids and normal skin, papillomas, and nonsarcoid cutaneous neoplasms from horses without sarcoids) were collected. Tissue samples were analyzed for BPV-1 or -2 DNA, using a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and restriction fragment length polymorphism. The PCR products from 7 sarcoid- affected horses were sequenced to evaluate percentage homology with expected sequences for BPV-1 or -2.

Results—Most (94/96, 98%) sarcoids contained BPV DNA. Sixty-two percent of the tumors examined had restriction enzyme patterns consistent with BPV-2. Thirty-one of 49 (63%) samples of normal skin obtained from horses with sarcoids contained BPV DNA. All samples subsequently sequenced had 100% homology with the expected sequences for the specific viral type. All tissues from healthy horses, nonsarcoid neoplasms, and papillomas were negative for BPV DNA.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Bovine papillomaviral DNA was detected in essentially all sarcoids examined. There appears to be regional variation in the prevalence of viral types in these tumors. The fact that we detected viral DNA in normal skin samples from horses with sarcoids suggests the possibility of a latent viral phase. Viral latency may be 1 explanation for the high rate of recurrence following surgical excision of sarcoids. (Am J Vet Res 2001;62:741–744)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To determine expression of a transforming gene (E5) of bovine papillomavirus in sarcoids, other tumors, and normal skin samples collected from horses with and without sarcoids.

Sample Population—23 sarcoids and 6 samples of normal skin obtained from 16 horses with sarcoids, 2 samples of normal skin and 2 papillomas obtained from horses without sarcoids, and 1 papilloma obtained from a cow.

Procedure—Protein was extracted from tissue samples collected from horses and incubated with agarose beads covalently coupled to Staphylococcus aureus protein A and an anti-E5 polyclonal antibody. Following incubation, proteins were eluted from the beads and electrophoresed on a 14% polyacrylamide gel and transferred to a polyvinylidene difluoride membrane. The E5 protein was detected by use of western blot analysis, using a chemiluminescence detection system.

Results—All 23 sarcoids had positive results for expression of E5 protein. Quantity of viral protein appeared to vary among sarcoids. All other tissues examined had negative results for E5 protein. Highest expression for E5 protein was observed in biologically aggressive fibroblastic variants of sarcoids, compared with expression in quiescent tumors.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—This study documented that activation and expression of the E5 gene is evident in sarcoids obtained from horses. These data support the conclusion that infection with bovine papillomavirus is important in the initiation or progression of sarcoids in horses. Treatment strategies designed to increase immune recognition of virally infected cells are warranted. (Am J Vet Res 2001;62:1212–1217)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To develop a computer-assisted image analysis procedure for quantitation of neovascularization in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded specimens of thyroid gland tissue from dogs with and without thyroid gland neoplasia.

Sample Population—47 thyroid gland carcinomas, 8 thyroid gland adenomas, and 8 specimens of thyroid tissue from dogs without thyroid gland abnormalities (normal).

Procedure—Serial tissue sections were prepared and stained with antibodies against human CD31 or factor VIII-related antigen (factor VIII-rag). The areas of highest vascularity were identified in CD31- stained sections, and corresponding areas were then identified in factor VIII-rag-stained sections. Image analysis was used to calculate the total vascular density in each section, and neovascularization, expressed as a percentage, was determined as the absolute value of the total vascular density derived from factor VIII-rag-stained sections minus the vascular density derived from CD31-stained sections.

Results—Mean vascular density of thyroid gland carcinomas derived from CD31-stained sections was significantly greater than density derived from factor VIII-rag-stained sections. This incremental difference was presumed to represent degree of neovascularization. However, significant differences were not detected between vascular densities derived from CD31 and factor VIII-rag-stained sections for either normal thyroid gland tissue or thyroid gland adenomas. No significant correlations were found between vascular density in thyroid gland carcinomas and survival time following surgery.

Conclusion and Clinical Relevance—A computerassisted image analysis method was developed for quantifying neovascularization in thyroid gland tumors of dogs. This method may allow identification of dogs with tumors that are most likely to respond to treatment with novel antiangiogenesis agents. (Am J Vet Res 2002;63:363–369)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research