Objective—To describe diseases, prognosis, and clinical
outcomes associated with extreme neutrophilic
leukocytosis in cats.
Animals—104 cats with extreme neutrophilic leukocytosis.
Procedure—Medical records from 1991 to 1999 were
examined to identify cats that had ≥ 50,000 WBC/µl
with ≥ 50% neutrophils. Signalment, absolute and differential
WBC counts, rectal temperature, clinical or
pathologic diagnosis, duration and cost of hospitalization,
and survival time were reviewed.
Results—Mean age of cats was 8.3 years, mean
WBC count was 73,055 cells/µl, and mean absolute
neutrophil count was 59,046 cells/µl. Mean duration
of hospitalization was 5.9 days, and mean cost of hospitalization
was $2,010. Twenty-nine (28%) cats were
febrile, and 63 (61%) cats died. Overall median survival
time was 30 days. Cats with neoplasia were
nearly 14 times as likely to die unexpectedly as cats
with other diseases.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Extreme neutrophilic
leukocytosis was associated with a high mortality
rate. The prognostic importance of extreme neutrophilic
leukocytosis should not be overlooked. Cats and
dogs have similar diseases, mortality rates, and treatment
costs associated with extreme neutrophilic leukocytosis.
(J Am Vet Med Assoc 2001;218:736–739)
Objective—To determine whether there was a
decline in the percentage of dogs undergoing necropsies
and whether there was substantial agreement or
disagreement between clinical and pathologic diagnoses.
Procedure—Medical records of hospitalized dogs
that died or were euthanatized and necropsied at a
veterinary teaching hospital in 1989 and 1999 were
reviewed. Clinical and pathologic diagnoses were
recorded and compared.
Results—There was a significant decline in the
necropsy rate of hospitalized dogs that died or were
euthanatized in 1999, compared with 1989. In both
1989 and 1999, there was disagreement between the
clinical and pathologic diagnoses in approximately a
third of the cases.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Despite
improved diagnostic methods, the accuracy of diagnosis
did not improve significantly in 1999, compared
with 1989. Necropsy is the best method to assess
overall diagnostic accuracy. Increased availability of
teaching funds may promote efforts to have necropsies
performed in veterinary teaching hospitals. ( J Am
Vet Med Assoc 2004;224:403–406)
Objective—To determine the incidence of bovine
papillomavirus (BPV) type 1 or 2 in sarcoids and other
samples of cutaneous tissues collected from horses
in the western United States.
Animals—55 horses with sarcoids and 12 horses
Procedure—Tissue samples (tumor and normal skin
from horses with sarcoids and normal skin, papillomas,
and nonsarcoid cutaneous neoplasms from
horses without sarcoids) were collected. Tissue samples
were analyzed for BPV-1 or -2 DNA, using a polymerase
chain reaction (PCR) and restriction fragment
length polymorphism. The PCR products from 7 sarcoid-
affected horses were sequenced to evaluate percentage
homology with expected sequences for BPV-1 or -2.
Results—Most (94/96, 98%) sarcoids contained BPV
DNA. Sixty-two percent of the tumors examined had
restriction enzyme patterns consistent with BPV-2.
Thirty-one of 49 (63%) samples of normal skin
obtained from horses with sarcoids contained BPV
DNA. All samples subsequently sequenced had
100% homology with the expected sequences for the
specific viral type. All tissues from healthy horses,
nonsarcoid neoplasms, and papillomas were negative
for BPV DNA.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Bovine papillomaviral
DNA was detected in essentially all sarcoids
examined. There appears to be regional variation in
the prevalence of viral types in these tumors. The fact
that we detected viral DNA in normal skin samples
from horses with sarcoids suggests the possibility of
a latent viral phase. Viral latency may be 1 explanation
for the high rate of recurrence following surgical excision
of sarcoids. (Am J Vet Res 2001;62:741–744)
Objective—To determine expression of a transforming
gene (E5) of bovine papillomavirus in sarcoids,
other tumors, and normal skin samples collected
from horses with and without sarcoids.
Sample Population—23 sarcoids and 6 samples of
normal skin obtained from 16 horses with sarcoids, 2
samples of normal skin and 2 papillomas obtained
from horses without sarcoids, and 1 papilloma
obtained from a cow.
Procedure—Protein was extracted from tissue samples
collected from horses and incubated with
agarose beads covalently coupled to Staphylococcus
aureus protein A and an anti-E5 polyclonal antibody.
Following incubation, proteins were eluted from the
beads and electrophoresed on a 14% polyacrylamide
gel and transferred to a polyvinylidene difluoride
membrane. The E5 protein was detected by use of
western blot analysis, using a chemiluminescence
Results—All 23 sarcoids had positive results for
expression of E5 protein. Quantity of viral protein
appeared to vary among sarcoids. All other tissues
examined had negative results for E5 protein. Highest
expression for E5 protein was observed in biologically
aggressive fibroblastic variants of sarcoids, compared
with expression in quiescent tumors.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—This study
documented that activation and expression of the E5
gene is evident in sarcoids obtained from horses.
These data support the conclusion that infection with
bovine papillomavirus is important in the initiation or
progression of sarcoids in horses. Treatment strategies
designed to increase immune recognition of
virally infected cells are warranted. (Am J Vet Res
Objective—To develop a computer-assisted image
analysis procedure for quantitation of neovascularization
in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded specimens
of thyroid gland tissue from dogs with and
without thyroid gland neoplasia.
Sample Population—47 thyroid gland carcinomas,
8 thyroid gland adenomas, and 8 specimens of thyroid
tissue from dogs without thyroid gland abnormalities
Procedure—Serial tissue sections were prepared
and stained with antibodies against human CD31 or
factor VIII-related antigen (factor VIII-rag). The areas
of highest vascularity were identified in CD31-
stained sections, and corresponding areas were
then identified in factor VIII-rag-stained sections.
Image analysis was used to calculate the total vascular
density in each section, and neovascularization,
expressed as a percentage, was determined
as the absolute value of the total vascular density
derived from factor VIII-rag-stained sections minus
the vascular density derived from CD31-stained
Results—Mean vascular density of thyroid gland
carcinomas derived from CD31-stained sections
was significantly greater than density derived from
factor VIII-rag-stained sections. This incremental difference
was presumed to represent degree of neovascularization.
However, significant differences
were not detected between vascular densities
derived from CD31 and factor VIII-rag-stained sections
for either normal thyroid gland tissue or thyroid
gland adenomas. No significant correlations
were found between vascular density in thyroid
gland carcinomas and survival time following
Conclusion and Clinical Relevance—A computerassisted
image analysis method was developed for
quantifying neovascularization in thyroid gland
tumors of dogs. This method may allow identification
of dogs with tumors that are most likely to
respond to treatment with novel antiangiogenesis
agents. (Am J Vet Res 2002;63:363–369)