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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Summary

In an effort to better understand the role of vasodilators in the management of pulmonary hypertension associated with chronic heartworm disease (hwd), pulmonary hemodynamic measurements were obtained from 7 experimentally infected, anesthetized dogs before and after hydralazine administration (mean dose, 1.96 mg/kg of body weight). Five dogs were maintained on room air, while 2 were maintained on 100% oxygen during the hydralazine study. The hemodynamic effect of hydralazine in dogs with hwd was evaluated, using heart rate, cardiac index, mean pulmonary artery pressure, mean arterial pressure, total pulmonary resistance, total systemic resistance, total systemic resistance/total pulmonary resistance, left ventricular dP/dtmax, left ventricular end diastolic pressure, and left and right ventricular double products ([mean arterial pressure × heart rate] and [mean pulmonary artery pressure × heart rate], respectively). Responders were defined as those in which total pulmonary resistance decreased ≥ 20% without an increase in mean pulmonary arterial pressure and in which heart rate increase was ≤ 10%. Comparison was also made between maximal hemodynamic effect of hydralazine with that after 100% oxygen administration for 15 minutes to previously normoxemic dogs (n = 5). Significance was determined if P < 0.05, using the paired t-test.

Hydralazine induced significant reductions in mean pulmonary and systemic arterial pressures and total pulmonary resistance, with no significant change in heart rate, cardiac index, total systemic resistance, left ventricular dP/dtmax, left ventricular end diastolic pressure, or right and left ventricular double products. Four (57%) of the 7 dogs studied were considered responders. Pretreatment cardiac index, mean pulmonary artery pressure, and total pulmonary resistance did not allow differentiation of responders from nonresponders. However, pretreatment right ventricular end diastolic pressure was significandy less in responders than in nonresponders. Two dogs sustained hypotension after hydralazine administration, but no dogs had significant tachycardia. In dogs with experimentally induced hwd, treatment with hydralazine had significantly greater effect on cardiac index and mean pulmonary and systemic arterial pressures and resistance than did administration of 100% oxygen. These data indicate that further study of vasodilators for treatment of hwd-induced pulmonary hypertension may be warranted.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

SUMMARY

A technique for transvenous endomyocardial biopsy of the right ventricle was developed and evaluated for safety and efficacy in anesthetized healthy cats positioned in left lateral recumbency. At least 6 endomyocardial biopsy specimens were obtained from the right ventricle or interventricular septum of 11 cats. In 4 cats, the right jugular vein was torn during attempts to pass the introducing catheter into the right ventricle; however, in only 1 cat did this preclude catheter passage. This cat's heart was biopsied via the left jugular vein. Except for damage to the jugular vein, complications were infrequent, and the biopsy procedure was well tolerated by all cats.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

SUMMARY

Mean carnitine concentrations ([carnitine]) were higher (P < 0.05) in adult cats than in kittens for skeletal muscle (total and free carnitine), myocardium (free carnitine), and urine (total and free carnitine). The free/total carnitine ratio was lower (P < 0.05) in kittens than in adults for liver, myocardium, and urine. Carnitine concentrations were similar between genders in kittens, but in adult cats, [carnitine] in plasma (total, free, and esterified carnitine) and liver (total and free carnitine) were higher (P < 0.05) in female than in male cats. Total and free plasma [carnitine] were correlated to total and free liver [carnitine], respectively. Skeletal muscle [carnitine] was not correlated to plasma [carnitine]. Correlations in [carnitine] between plasma and myocardium, kidney, or urine were inconsistent.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research