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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To determine the correlation between activity as measured by an accelerometer and videographic measurements of movement and mobility in healthy dogs.

Animals—4 healthy dogs.

Procedures—After determination that accelerometers had good agreement, 5 identical accelerometers were used simultaneously to test their output at 8 locations (rotated among collar, vest, and forelimb stocking locations) on each dog. Movement and mobility for each dog were recorded continuously with a computerized videography system for 7-hour ses-sions on 4 consecutive days. Accelerometer values were combined into 439 fifteen-minute intervals and compared with 3 videographic measurements of movement and mobility (distance traveled, time spent walking > 20 cm/s, and time spent changing position by > 12% of 2-dimensional surface area during 1.5 seconds).

Results—96% of values compared between the most discordant pair of accelerometers were within 2 SDs of the mean value from all 5 accelerometers. All mounting locations provided acceptable correlation with videographic measurements of movement and mobility, and the ventral portion of the collar was determined to be the most convenient location.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Use of an accelerometer was adequate for at-home activity monitoring, an important end point in clinical trials of treatment for chronic disease, and provided information about daily activity that is unattainable by other methods.

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To determine the usefulness of echocardiography in the diagnosis of heartworm disease in cats and to compare this modality with other tests.

Design—Retrospective study.

Animals—43 cats with heartworm infection that had echocardiographic examinations at 2 veterinary teaching hospitals between 1985 and 1997. Twenty-two of these 43 cats also underwent radiography of the thorax and heartworm antibody and heartworm antigen testing.

Procedure—Cats were determined to be infected with Dirofilaria immitis infection on the basis of 1 or more of the following findings: positive modified Knott or antigen test result, echocardiographic evidence of heartworm disease, or confirmation of the disease on postmortem examination. The percentage of echocardiographs in which heartworms were evident was compared with the percentage of radiographs in which pulmonary artery enlargement was evident and results of antigen or antibody tests in cats in which all tests were performed.

Results—Overall, heartworms were detectable by use of echocardiography in 17 of 43 cats, most often in the pulmonary arteries. In the 22 cats in which all tests were performed, antibody test results were positive in 18, antigen test results were positive in 12, and pulmonary artery enlargement was evident radiographically and heartworms were identifiable echocardiographically in 14. Heartworm infection was diagnosed exclusively by use of echocardiography in 5 cats in which the antigen test result was negative.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Although echocardiography was less sensitive than antigen testing, it was a useful adjunctive test in cats that had negative antigen test results in which there was a suspicion of heartworm disease. The pulmonary arteries should be evaluated carefully to increase the likelihood of detection of heartworms echocardiographically. ( J Am Vet Med Assoc2001;218:66–69)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To characterize risk factors, clinical findings, usefulness of diagnostic tests, and prognosis in cats with naturally occurring heartworm infection (HWI).

Design—Retrospective study.

Animals—50 cats with Dirofilaria immitis infection.

Procedure—Medical records, thoracic radiographs, and echocardiograms were reviewed and findings compared with appropriate reference populations.

Results—Findings suggested that male cats were not predisposed to HWI, domestic shorthair cats were at increased risk, and indoor housing was only partially protective. Fewer cases of HWI were identified in the final quarter of the year, compared with other periods, and prevalence is not apparently increasing. Signs of respiratory tract disease were most common, followed by vomiting. Infection was diagnosed incidentally in > 25% of cats; conversely, 10% of infected cats died suddenly without other clinical signs. Serologic tests were most useful for diagnosis, followed by radiography and echocardiography. Eosinophilia supported the diagnosis. Overall median survival time was 1.5 years but exceeded 4 years in cats surviving beyond the day of diagnosis.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Sex does not appear to be a risk factor for HWI in cats, and indoor housing provides only incomplete protection. Signs of respiratory tract disease (dyspnea and cough) are the strongest indicators of HWI in cats, and some radiographic evidence of infection is detected in most cases. Antibody screening for HWI in cats is efficacious, and antigen testing and echocardiography are most useful for making a definitive antemortem diagnosis. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2000;217: 355–358)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate the effect of administration of the labeled dosage of pimobendan to dogs with furosemide-induced activation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS).

Animals—12 healthy hound-type dogs.

Procedures—Dogs were allocated into 2 groups (6 dogs/group). One group received furosemide (2 mg/kg, PO, q 12 h) for 10 days (days 1 to 10). The second group received a combination of furosemide (2 mg/kg, PO, q 12 h) and pimobendan (0.25 mg/kg, PO, q 12 h) for 10 days (days 1 to 10). To determine the effect of the medications on the RAAS, 2 urine samples/d were obtained for determination of the urinary aldosterone-to-creatinine ratio (A:C) on days 0 (baseline), 5, and 10.

Results—Mean ± SD urinary A:C increased significantly after administration of furosemide (baseline, 0.37 ± 0.14 μg/g; day 5, 0.89 ± 0.23 μg/g) or the combination of furosemide and pimobendan (baseline, 0.36 ± 0.22 μg/g; day 5, 0.88 ± 0.55 μg/g). Mean urinary A:C on day 10 was 0.95 ± 0.63 μg/g for furosemide alone and 0.85 ± 0.21 μg/g for the combination of furosemide and pimobendan.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Furosemide-induced RAAS activation appeared to plateau by day 5. Administration of pimobendan at a standard dosage did not enhance or suppress furosemide-induced RAAS activation. These results in clinically normal dogs suggested that furosemide, administered with or without pimobendan, should be accompanied by RAAS-suppressive treatment.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE To determine the accuracy of a point-of-care lung ultrasonography (LUS) protocol designed to diagnose cardiogenic pulmonary edema (CPE) in dyspneic dogs and cats.

DESIGN Diagnostic test evaluation.

ANIMALS 76 dogs and 24 cats evaluated for dyspnea.

PROCEDURES Dogs and cats were evaluated by LUS; B lines were counted at 4 anatomic sites on each hemithorax. A site was scored as positive when > 3 B lines were identified. Animals with ≥ 2 positive sites identified on each hemithorax were considered positive for CPE. Medical records were evaluated to obtain a final diagnosis (reference standard) for calculation of the sensitivity and specificity of LUS and thoracic radiography for the diagnosis of CPE.

RESULTS Dogs and cats with a final diagnosis of CPE had a higher number of positive LUS sites than did those with noncardiac causes of dyspnea. Overall sensitivity and specificity of LUS for the diagnosis of CPE were 84% and 74%, respectively, and these values were similar to those of thoracic radiography (85% and 87%, respectively). Use of LUS generally led to the misdiagnosis of CPE (ie, a false-positive result) in animals with diffuse interstitial or alveolar disease. Interobserver agreement on LUS results was high (κ > 0.85).

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE LUS was useful for predicting CPE as the cause of dyspnea in dogs and cats, although this technique could not be used to differentiate CPE from other causes of diffuse interstitial or alveolar disease. Point-of-care LUS has promise as a diagnostic tool for dyspneic dogs and cats.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association