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Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To assess whether IV regional limb perfusion (IVRLP) and intraosseous regional limb perfusion (IORLP) of ceftiofur sodium resulted in clinically relevant drug concentrations in the synovial fluid of the tibiotarsal-tarsometatarsal joint of chickens (ie, an avian model) and to determine whether one of those techniques was superior to the other.

ANIMALS

12 healthy adult hens.

PROCEDURES

Birds were randomly assigned to receive ceftiofur sodium (2 mg/kg) by the IVRLP (n = 4), IORLP (4), or IM (control; 4) route once daily for 6 consecutive days. Blood and tibiotarsal-tarsometatarsal synovial fluid samples were collected 15 minutes after ceftiofur administration on predetermined days for quantification of ceftiofur concentration. Plasma and synovial fluid ceftiofur concentrations were compared among the 3 groups.

RESULTS

All 4 birds in the IVRLP group developed mild to moderate bruising around the injection site, but this bruising did not prohibit completion of the prescribed treatment regimen. No adverse effects were observed in any of the other birds. The mean plasma and synovial fluid ceftiofur concentrations exceeded the therapeutic threshold for most common bacterial pathogens (> 1.0 μg/mL) at all sample acquisition times for all 3 groups. The mean synovial fluid ceftiofur concentration for the IVRLP group was significantly greater than that for the IORLP and control groups at all sample acquisition times.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Results suggested that IVRLP may be a safe and effective technique for antimicrobial administration to birds with joint infections, contaminated wounds, pododermatitis, and other musculoskeletal infections of the distal aspect of a limb.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To determine the frequency and severity of thrombocytosis and thromboelastographic evidence of hypercoagulability during the first 2 weeks after splenectomy in dogs with splenic masses and to investigate relationships between platelet counts and thromboelastography values.

ANIMALS

34 dogs undergoing splenectomy for splenic masses.

PROCEDURES

Blood samples for platelet counts and thromboelastography were obtained at induction of anesthesia (day 0) prior to splenectomy and on days 2, 7, and 14.

RESULTS

Mean platelet counts were 167.9 × 103/μL, 260.4 × 103 μ/L, 715.9 × 103/μL, and 582.2 × 103/μL on days 0, 2, 7, and 14, respectively, and were significantly higher at all postoperative assessment points than on day 0. Thrombocytosis was observed in 3% (1/34), 6% (2/33), 81% (21/26), and 69% (18/26) of dogs on days 0, 2, 7, and 14. Platelet counts > 1,000 × 103/μL were observed in 1 dog on day 2 and in 5 dogs on day 7. One or more thromboelastography values suggestive of hypercoagulability were observed in 45% (15/33), 84% (26/31), 89% (24/27), and 84% (21/25) of dogs on days 0, 2, 7, and 14. At each assessment point, higher platelet counts were correlated with thromboelastography values suggestive of hypercoagulability.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Marked thrombocytosis and thromboelastography values suggestive of hypercoagulability were common during the first 2 weeks after splenectomy for the dogs of this study. If present, hypercoagulability could increase the risk for development of postsplenectomy thrombotic conditions such as portal system thrombosis and pulmonary thromboembolism.

Restricted access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To compare liposome-encapsulated bupivacaine (LEB) and (nonliposomal) 0.5% bupivacaine hydrochloride (0.5BH) for control of postoperative pain in dogs undergoing tibial plateau leveling osteotomy (TPLO).

ANIMALS

33 client-owned dogs.

PROCEDURES

In a randomized clinical trial, dogs undergoing TPLO received LEB (5.3 mg/kg [2.4 mg/lb]) or 0.5BH (1.5 mg/kg [0.68 mg/lb]) by periarticular soft tissue injection. All dogs received carprofen (2.2 mg/kg [1 mg/lb], SC, q 12 h) beginning at extubation. Signs of pain were assessed at extubation and predetermined times up to 48 hours later with the Colorado State University-Canine Acute Pain Scale and Glasgow Composite Pain Scale-Short Form. A pressure nociceptive threshold device was used at the affected stifle joint before surgery and at 5 postoperative time points. Methadone (0.1 mg/kg [0.05 mg/lb], IV) was administered if the Colorado State University pain scale score was ≥ 2 (scale, 0 to 4). Surgical variables; pain scores; pressure nociceptive thresholds; times to first administration of rescue analgesic, first walk, and first meal consumption; and total opioid administration were compared between treatment groups.

RESULTS

28 dogs completed the study. Dogs administered LEB were less likely to require rescue analgesia and received lower amounts of opioids than dogs administered 0.5BH. There were no significant intergroup differences in other measured variables.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE

The LEB appeared to provide adequate analgesia after TPLO with lower requirements for opioid treatments, which may allow dogs to be discharged from the hospital earlier than with traditional pain management strategies.

Restricted access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To use duplex Doppler ultrasonography to compare gastrointestinal activity in healthy sedated versus nonsedated rabbits and to evaluate agreement between B-mode and pulsed-wave Doppler (PWD) ultrasonographic measurements.

ANIMALS

10 healthy client-owned rabbits brought for routine physical examination and 11 brought for routine ovariohysterectomy or castration.

PROCEDURES

Duplex Doppler ultrasonography of the gastrointestinal tract was performed once for the 10 rabbits that underwent physical examination and twice (before and after presurgical sedation) for the 11 rabbits that underwent routine ovariohysterectomy or castration. Mean number of peristaltic contractions during a 30-second period was determined for the stomach, duodenum, jejunum, cecum, and colon from B-mode and PWD ultrasonographic images that had been video recorded. Findings for the duodenum and jejunum were compared between B-mode and PWD ultrasonography and between sedated and nonsedated rabbits.

RESULTS

Duodenal and jejunal segments had measurable peristaltic waves; however, the stomach, cecum, and colon had no consistent measurable activity. B-mode and PWD ultrasonographic measurements for the duodenum and jejunum had high agreement. No significant difference was identified between nonsedated and sedated rabbits in mean number of peristaltic contractions of the duodenum or jejunum.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Results suggested that both B-mode and PWD ultrasonography of the duodenum and jejunum may be suitable for noninvasive evaluation of small intestinal motility in rabbits and that the sedation protocol used in this study had no impact on measured peristaltic values.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research