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  • Author or Editor: Brook A. Niemiec x
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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To compare the bacteriome of the oral cavity in healthy dogs and dogs with various stages of periodontal disease.

ANIMALS

Dogs without periodontal disease (n = 12) or with mild (10), moderate (19), or severe (10) periodontal disease.

PROCEDURES

The maxillary arcade of each dog was sampled with a sterile swab, and swabs were submitted for next-generation DNA sequencing targeting the V1–V3 region of the 16S rRNA gene.

RESULTS

714 bacterial species from 177 families were identified. The 3 most frequently found bacterial species were Actinomyces sp (48/51 samples), Porphyromonas cangingivalis (47/51 samples), and a Campylobacter sp (48/51 samples). The most abundant species were P cangingivalis, Porphyromonas gulae, and an undefined Porphyromonas sp. Porphyromonas cangingivalis and Campylobacter sp were part of the core microbiome shared among the 4 groups, and P gulae, which was significantly enriched in dogs with severe periodontal disease, was part of the core microbiome shared between all groups except dogs without periodontal disease. Christensenellaceae sp, Bacteroidales sp, Family XIII sp, Methanobrevibacter oralis, Peptostreptococcus canis, and Tannerella sp formed a unique core microbiome in dogs with severe periodontal disease.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Results highlighted that in dogs, potential pathogens can be common members of the oral cavity bacteriome in the absence of disease, and changes in the relative abundance of certain members of the bacteriome can be associated with severity of periodontal disease. Future studies may aim to determine whether these changes are the cause or result of periodontal disease or the host immune response.

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To investigate the mycobiome of the oral cavity in healthy dogs and dogs with various stages of periodontal disease.

ANIMALS

51 dogs without periodontal disease (n = 12) or with mild (10), moderate (19), or severe (10) periodontal disease.

PROCEDURES

The whole maxillary arcade of each dog was sampled with a sterile swab, and swabs were submitted for next-generation DNA sequencing targeting the internal transcribed spacer 2 region with a commercial sequencing platform.

RESULTS

Fungi were detected in all samples, with a total of 320 fungal species from 135 families detected in the data set. No single fungal species was found in all samples. The 3 most frequently found fungal species were Cladosporium sp (46/51 samples), Malassezia restricta (44/51 samples), and Malassezia arunalokei (36/51 samples). Certain fungi, specifically those of the family Didymellaceae, the family Irpicaceae, and the order Pleosporales, were significantly associated with different stages of periodontitis. Mycobial analysis indicated that Cladosporium sp could be considered part of the core oral cavity mycobiome.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Results highlighted that fungi are present in the oral cavity of dogs and are characterized by substantial species diversity, with different fungal communities associated with various stages of periodontal disease. The next-generation DNA sequencing used in the present study revealed substantially more species of fungi than previous culture-based studies.

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research