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  • Author or Editor: Brittany N. Stevens x
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OBJECTIVE To describe a technique for endoscopic evaluation of the coelomic viscera of koi (Cyprinus carpio) and to evaluate the ability to visually examine coelomic structures by use of an approach cranial or caudal to the pelvic girdle.

ANIMALS 16 subadult koi.

PROCEDURES Koi were anesthetized with buffered tricaine methanesulfonate. Coelioscopic examination was performed via a ventral midline incisional approach cranial or caudal to the pelvic girdle. A 2.7-mm × 18-cm 30° oblique endoscope within a 4.8-mm operating sheath and infusion of saline (0.9% NaCl) solution was used. Ease of entry into the coelomic cavity and visual examination of structures were scored for each fish. Fish were euthanized 2 or 8 weeks after the procedure, and necropsy was performed.

RESULTS The coelioscopic procedure was tolerated well, and all koi recovered uneventfully. For all fish, ease of entry and visual examination scores of the liver, intestines, gonads, heart, and anterior kidney were satisfactory to excellent. Visual examination of the posterior kidney and swim bladder was satisfactory to difficult, whereas the spleen and gallbladder were not visually identified. No significant differences were noted in entry or visual examination scores between the cranial and caudal approaches or between sexes. Minor complications included mild hemorrhage, rupture of the gonadal capsule, formation of adhesions between the viscera and incision site, and delayed healing of the incision.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Diagnostic coelioscopy of koi appeared to be safe and effective. This procedure could have potential for use in examination of coelomic structures and disease diagnosis.

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research



To compare intraocular pressures (IOPs) estimated by rebound and applanation tonometry for dogs with lens instability.


66 dogs.


Medical records of dogs examined between September 2012 and July 2018 were reviewed for diagnoses of anterior (ALL) or posterior (PLL) lens luxation or lens subluxation.


Estimates of IOP obtained with rebound and applanation tonometry significantly differed from each other for all types of lens instability considered collectively (mean ± SE difference between tonometric readings, 8.1 ± 1.3 mm Hg) and specific types of lens instability considered individually (mean ± SE difference between tonometric readings: ALL, 12.8 ± 2.5 mm Hg; PLL, 5.9 ± 1.7 mm Hg; subluxation, 2.8 ± 0.8 mm Hg). Median (range) differences between rebound and applanation tonometer readings for dogs with ALL was 5 mm Hg (–9 to 76 mm Hg), with PLL was 3 mm Hg (–1 to 19 mm Hg), and with lens subluxation was 3 mm Hg (–9 to 18 mm Hg). In eyes with ALL, rebound tonometer readings exceeded applanation tonometer readings on 44 of 60 (73%) occasions.


Rebound tonometry yielded higher estimates of IOP than did applanation tonometry in eyes with ALL and with all types of lens luxation considered collectively. Estimates of IOP in eyes with lens instability should ideally be obtained with both rebound and applanation tonometers. Veterinarians with only one type of tonometer should interpret results for dogs with lens instability concurrent with physical examination findings.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association