PROCEDURES Dogs were randomly assigned to receive either oxygen (Fio2 > 0.9 [100% oxygen]; n = 11; control group) or a mixture of nitrogen and oxygen (Fio2 = 0.4; 11; 40% oxygen group) as the carrier gas for isoflurane while anesthetized. All dogs were allowed to breathe spontaneously while anesthetized. For each dog, the Pao2, Paco2, other indices of oxygenation, and extent of sedation were monitored at predetermined times during and for 1 hour after anesthesia. Measured variables were compared between the 2 treatment groups and over time within each treatment group.
RESULTS None of the measured variables differed significantly between the control and 40% oxygen groups at any time during the postanesthesia period. Within each treatment group, the Paco2 and extent of sedation decreased over time during the postanesthesia period.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results indicated that indices of oxygenation did not differ significantly between healthy dogs in which the Fio2 was maintained at > 0.9 and those in which the Fio2 was maintained at 0.4 while anesthetized for ovariohysterectomy. Thus, the addition of nitrogen to the carrier gas for an inhalant anesthetic conferred neither an advantage nor disadvantage in regard to oxygenation during the first hour of anesthesia recovery.
To evaluate a novel 2-catheter technique for urethral catheterization in female cats and small dogs and compare the time required for and success rates achieved by use of the novel technique versus traditional methods (blind technique in cats and digital palpation in dogs) as performed by personnel (catheter placers [CPs]) with different levels of experience in urinary catheter placement.
2 CPs were board certified in veterinary surgery, 1 of whom had experience with the novel technique, and the other did not. The third CP was a veterinary surgical intern who was unfamiliar with the novel technique. For each animal enrolled in the study, 1 CP performed catheterization with the novel technique and traditional methods. Data recorded included the time required for successful catheterization and whether a successful catheterization was achieved within a 3-minute time limit.
The overall success rates were 79.5% (31/39 animals) with the novel technique and 43.6% (17/39 animals) with traditional methods. Median times for successful catheter placement were 48 seconds for the novel technique and 41 seconds for traditional methods. Among CPs, success rates or times to successful catheter placement did not differ significantly.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE
Study results suggested that the novel 2-catheter technique for urethral catheterization may be a more efficient option than traditional methods for gaining access to the urinary bladder in cats and small dogs, particularly when patient size limits use of instrumentation or digital palpation.
To provide information about complication rates and the risk factors for complications with mandibulectomy and maxillectomy procedures in dogs.
459 client-owned dogs that underwent a mandibulectomy or maxillectomy between January 1, 2007, and January 1, 2018.
Inclusion criteria included a complete medical record that contained an anesthesia record, surgical report, available histopathology results, and results of CBC and serum biochemical analysis before surgery. A minimum follow-up of 90 days after surgery was required.
271 complications occurred in 171 of 459 (37.3%) dogs. Eighteen complications were not given a severity description. Of the remaining 253 complications, most were considered minor (157/253 [62.1%]). Multivariable logistic regression analysis revealed that only increased surgical time had a significant (OR, 1.36; 95% CI, 1.12 to 1.54) association with the occurrence of ≥ 1 complication. For each additional hour of surgery, the odds of complications increased by 36%. Preoperative radiation therapy or chemotherapy increased the odds of incisional dehiscence or oral fistula formation (OR, 3.0; 95% CI, 1.3 to 7.2). Additionally, undergoing maxillectomy, compared with mandibulectomy, increased the odds of incisional dehiscence or oral fistula formation (OR, 1.8; 95% CI, 1.1 to 3.1). Two hundred forty-four of 271 (90.0%) complications occurred in the perioperative period (0 to 3 months after surgery).
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE
Compared with mandibulectomy, performing maxillectomy increased the risk for incisional dehiscence or oral fistula formation. Mandibulectomy and maxillectomy had a moderate risk for a complication.