OBJECTIVE To determine the pharyngeal and laryngeal distribution of radiopaque contrast medium administered orally or via nasopharyngeal catheter to standing horses.
ANIMALS 5 healthy adult horses.
PROCEDURES A crossover study was conducted. Radiopaque contrast medium (12 mL) was administered orally and via nasopharyngeal catheter to each horse. Pharyngeal and laryngeal distribution of contrast medium was determined by examination of radiographs obtained immediately after administration of contrast medium, compared with those obtained before administration. Regional distribution of contrast medium was graded. Endoscopic examination of the nasopharynx, laryngopharynx, and larynx was performed to confirm radiographic results.
RESULTS Examination of radiographs obtained after nasopharyngeal administration revealed contrast medium in the nasopharynx (n = 5), oropharynx (2), laryngopharynx (3), and larynx (5) of the 5 horses. Examination of radiographs obtained after oral administration revealed contrast medium in the oropharynx (n = 4) and larynx (1) of the 5 horses. Endoscopic examination confirmed radiographic findings and was found to be sensitive for detection of contrast medium in the laryngopharynx, whereby detection rates were higher for both administration methods.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results suggested that medication administered by use of a nasopharyngeal catheter will result in topical distribution within the nasopharynx, including the dorsal surface of the soft palate, and larynx, although distribution should be evaluated in horses with clinical airway disease to confirm these findings. Oral administration did not result in consistently detectable topical laryngeal distribution but could be used for selected conditions (eg, palatitis).
OBJECTIVE To describe clinical use of a locking compression plate (LCP) for proximal interphalangeal joint (PIPJ) arthrodesis in horses and compare outcomes for horses that underwent the procedure as treatment for fracture of the middle phalanx (P2) versus other causes.
DESIGN Retrospective case series.
ANIMALS 29 client-owned horses.
PROCEDURES Medical records of 2 veterinary teaching hospitals from 2008 through 2014 were reviewed to identify horses that underwent PIPJ arthrodesis of 1 limb. Signalment, surgical, and outcome-related variables were recorded. Owners were contacted from 1 to 6 years after surgery to determine rehabilitation time, current use of the horse, and overall owner satisfaction with the procedure. Success was determined on the basis of owner satisfaction and outcome for intended use. Variables of interest were compared statistically between horses that underwent surgery for P2 fracture versus other reasons.
RESULTS 14 horses underwent surgery for treatment of P2 fracture, and 15 had surgery because of osteoarthritis, subluxation, or osteochondrosis. Median convalescent time after surgery (with no riding or unrestricted exercise) was 7 months. Four horses were euthanized; of 23 known alive at follow-up, 22 were not lame, and 18 had returned to their intended use (8 and 10 at higher and lower owner-reported levels of work, respectively). Horses undergoing arthrodesis for reasons other than fracture were significantly more likely to return to their previous level of work. Twenty-two of 24 owners contacted indicated satisfaction with the procedure.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Surgical arthrodesis of the PIPJ was successful in most horses of the study population. Various nuances of the system for fracture repair need to be understood prior to its use.