Objective—To determine whether there is a predis-position for lung lobe torsion (LLT) in Pugs and describe clinical findings associated with LLT in that breed, compared with findings in other breeds.
Design—Retrospective case series.
Animals—7 Pugs and 16 dogs of other breeds.
Procedure—Information collected from records included signalment, history, lung lobe affected, results of clinicopathologic testing, histologic findings, diagnostic imaging results, surgical treatment, and outcome.
Results—23 dogs were diagnosed with LLT, 10 of which were large-breed dogs and 13 of which were small-breed dogs. Seven of the small-breed dogs were Pugs. Pugs with LLT were significantly overrepresented, compared with the general hospital population. Affected Pugs ranged in age from 4.5 months to 4 years (median, 1.5 years). Six of the 7 Pugs had no predisposing conditions, and 6 were male. Six Pugs survived to discharge. Of the other small- and large-breed dogs, 3 of 6 and 5 of 10 survived to discharge, respectively. None of the Pugs were readmitted for complications or recurrence.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results indicated that young male Pugs may be predisposed to developing spontaneous LLT. The prognosis for survival and resolution of clinical signs in Pugs with LLT appeared to be excellent. Factors contributing to the development of LLT in Pugs are not known.
Objective—To determine whether injection of a mesenteric lymph node with iodinated aqueous contrast medium results in radiographic delineation of the thoracic duct and its branches, ascertain the ideal interval between injection and radiographic imaging, and evaluate mesenteric lymphadenography performed via laparoscopic and surgical approaches in dogs.
Animals—10 adult dogs.
Procedure—In each dog, a right paracostal laparotomy or a right laparoscopic approach was performed to identify a mesenteric lymph node for injection of an iodinated aqueous contrast agent (0.22 mL/kg [81.4 mg of iodine/kg]). Lateral radiographic views were obtained at 60, 120, 180, 240, and 300 seconds after injection.
Results—A mesenteric lymph node was identified and injected with contrast medium in each dog. Via paracostal laparotomy, lymph node injection resulted in successful lymphangiographic evaluation in 4 of 5 dogs, whereas via the laparoscopic approach, lymph node injection resulted in successful lymphangio-graphic evaluation in 2 of 5 dogs. In successful radiographic evaluations, injected lymph nodes, mesenteric lymphatics, and the thoracic duct and its branches were delineated. Radiographs obtained at 60 and 120 seconds after injection of contrast medium provided the most detail.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Injection of a mesenteric lymph node directly with contrast medium appears to be a feasible technique for delineation of the thoracic duct and its branches in dogs and might be useful in small animals in which mesenteric lymphatic catheterization can be difficult and lymphangiography is more likely to fail. Refinement of the laparoscopic technique may provide a minimally invasive approach to lymphadenography.
Case Description—A 6-year-old neutered male cat was examined because of a 4-week history of abnormal sounds while drinking and a previously noted mass at the base of the tongue.
Clinical Findings—Oral examination revealed a 1-cm-diameter midline cystic mass on the dorsal aspect of the base of the tongue at the junction of the rostral two-thirds and caudal third of the tongue. Complete blood count and serum biochemical analysis revealed no clinically relevant abnormalities, and serum total thyroxine and free thyroxine (determined by equilibrium dialysis) concentrations were within the reference range.
Treatment and Outcome—The fluid in the cystic mass was aspirated, and the remaining deflated mass was marsupialized. Histologic and immunohistochemical examination of sections of the excised mass revealed ectopic thyroid tissue. The cat recovered uneventfully from the surgery, clinical signs resolved, and the cat remained euthyroid with no recurrence of the mass as of 8 months after surgery.
Clinical Relevance—This is the first known reported case of ectopic lingual thyroid tissue in a male cat. In humans, the most common site of ectopic thyroid tissue is at the base of the tongue and the condition is disproportionately found in females, compared with males. In humans with ectopic lingual thyroid tissue, the patient often lacks any other functional thyroid tissue. However, the cat of this report remained euthyroid after mass resection.
Objective—To determine the survival rates of dogs
and cats that underwent surgical treatment for traumatic
diaphragmatic hernia within 24 hours of admission
and determine whether timing of surgery affected
perioperative survival rate.
Animals—63 dogs and 29 cats treated surgically for
traumatic diaphragmatic hernia.
Procedure—Medical records were reviewed to evaluate
associations between perioperative survival rates and
variables including timing of surgery in relation to admission
and acute versus chronic diaphragmatic hernia.
Results—Among the 92 animals, 82 (89.1%) were
discharged alive after surgery. Sixty-four (69.6%)
patients received surgical intervention within 12
hours of admission, and 84 (91.3%) received surgical
intervention within 24 hours of admission. Median
time from admission to discharge was 4 days (2 to 33
days). Data for acute cases (68 dogs and cats) were
analyzed separately. Sixty-three (92.6%) patients with
acute diaphragmatic hernia received surgical intervention
within 24 hours of admission to the hospital,
and 59 (93.7%) of these patients were discharged
alive. Twenty-nine (42.6%) patients with acute
diaphragmatic hernia received surgical intervention
within 24 hours of trauma, and 26 of 29 (89.7%)
patients were discharged alive. An overall acute and
chronic perioperative survival rate of 89.7% was
observed in dogs and cats that received surgical intervention
within 24 hours of admission.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results in 68
dogs and cats that underwent surgery within 24 hours
of admission suggested that early surgical intervention
for acute diaphragmatic hernia was associated with
good perioperative survival rates. (J Am Vet Med Assoc
Case Description—A 10-year-old Golden Retriever evaluated because of recurrent pericardial and pleural effusion underwent thoracoscopy with biopsy of the pleura and mediastinum.
Clinical Findings—Before thoracoscopy, 5 L of serosanguinous fluid was removed from the pleural cavity via thoracocentesis. During thoracoscopic exploration, it was observed that the parietal pleura and mediastinum were covered by miliary white to tan nodules 1 to 3 mm in diameter. Biopsy specimens were obtained, and partial pericardiectomy was performed. Portal sites were closed routinely. Cytologic evaluation of the pleural fluid revealed high protein concentration and cellularity, with cellular changes consistent with an exfoliating carcinoma. Results of bacterial culture were negative.
Treatment and Outcome—Carboplatin was administered via intracavitary instillation, and prednisone was administered orally. Twenty-one days later, 1 firm, irregularly shaped 6.5 × 3-cm mass and 4 smaller masses were detected in the area of the left thoracic wall where the cannula had been inserted during thoracoscopy. Histologic analysis of tissue from the masses collected at necropsy confirmed that they were malignant tumors with similar appearance to the pleural mesothelioma and immunohistochemical staining properties identical to those of the primary tumor.
Clinical Relevance—Although thoracoscopy is associated with less postoperative pain, shorter hospitalization times, and faster patient recovery than sternotomy procedures, complications are also possible with minimally invasive endoscopic surgery. Portal site metastasis can develop from contamination of portal sites with cells on instruments or cannulas or via leakage of effusion fluid. Although rare, this potential complication should be discussed with owners prior to performing the procedure.
Case Description—A 1-year-old neutered male cat was examined because of a 6-month history of recurrent swelling and draining wounds affecting the craniomedial aspect of the distal portion of the left forelimb.
Clinical Findings—No lameness or neurologic deficits were evident. Examination of craniocaudal and lateromedial radiographic views revealed nonprogressive circumferential osteolysis and a mildly radiopaque, ring-shaped foreign body surrounding the radius and ulna.
Treatment and Outcome—During surgery, a tight elastic band surrounded by a thick fibrous tissue capsule was found encircling the limb. Microbial culture yielded a Staphylococcus sp that was susceptible to clindamycin. Follow-up monitoring via telephone communication with the owners 1.5 years after removal of the foreign body indicated that the cat had healed with no recurrence of drainage.
Clinical Relevance—Pressure osteolysis of the bones of the forelimb can be caused by a circumferential foreign body without associated neurologic abnormalities or lameness.