A 4-year-old 18.6-kg (40.9-lb) sexually intact male mixed-breed dog was evaluated at the University of Georgia because of acute blindness. For 3 months prior to the evaluation, the dog had had intermittent left forelimb lameness. Treatment with various antimicrobials and administration of prednisone over a 2-week period (as prescribed by the referring veterinarian) did not lead to resolution of the lameness. Immediately prior to initial evaluation at the University of Georgia, the dog suddenly became blind. On ophthalmic examination, the dog was blind in the left eye but had vision in the right eye. Although the
OBJECTIVE To characterize platelet-rich plasma (PRP) products obtained from canine blood by use of a variety of commercially available devices.
SAMPLE Blood samples from 15 dogs between 18 months and 9 years of age with no concurrent disease, except for osteoarthritis in some dogs.
PROCEDURES PRP products were produced from blood obtained from each of the 15 dogs by use of each of 5 commercially available PRP-concentrating systems. Complete blood counts were performed on each whole blood sample and PRP product. The degree of platelet, leukocyte, and erythrocyte concentration or reduction for PRP, compared with results for the whole blood sample, was quantified for each dog and summarized for each concentrating system.
RESULTS The various PRP-concentrating systems differed substantially in the amount of blood processed, method of PRP preparation, amount of PRP produced, and platelet, leukocyte, and erythrocyte concentrations or reductions for PRP relative to results for whole blood.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE The characteristics of PRP products differed considerably. Investigators evaluating the efficacy of PRPs need to specify the characteristics of the product they are assessing. Clinicians should be aware of the data (or lack of data) supporting use of a particular PRP for a specific medical condition.
A 2-year-old 19.1-kg (42.0-lb) spayed female English Bulldog was evaluated because of respiratory stertor and chronic vomiting. The dog was noted to have a mass in the left nostril (Figure 1) during the preceding 2 months. The mass had been gradually increasing in size and causing increasingly pronounced stertor. The dog had had a single syncopal episode.
Photograph of the nose of a 2-year-old spayed female English Bulldog with a nasal mass occluding the left nostril (A) and photomicrograph of a fine-needle aspirate specimen of the nasal mass (B). The mass had been present for
Objective—To identify proteins with differential expression between healthy dogs and dogs with stifle joint osteoarthritis secondary to cranial cruciate ligament (CCL) disease.
Sample—Serum and synovial fluid samples obtained from dogs with stifle joint osteoarthritis before (n = 10) and after (8) surgery and control dogs without osteoarthritis (9) and archived synovial membrane and articular cartilage samples obtained from dogs with stifle joint osteoarthritis (5) and dogs without arthritis (5).
Procedures—Serum and synovial fluid samples were analyzed via liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry; results were compared against a nonredundant protein database. Expression of complement component 3 in archived tissue samples was determined via immunohistochemical methods.
Results—No proteins had significantly different expression between serum samples of control dogs versus those of dogs with stifle joint osteoarthritis. Eleven proteins (complement component 3 precursor, complement factor I precursor, apolipoprotein B-100 precursor, serum paraoxonase and arylesterase 1, zinc-alpha-2-glycoprotein precursor, serum amyloid A, transthyretin precursor, retinol-binding protein 4 precursor, alpha-2-macroglobulin precursor, angiotensinogen precursor, and fibronectin 1 isoform 1 preproprotein) had significantly different expression (> 2.0-fold) between synovial fluid samples obtained before surgery from dogs with stifle joint osteoarthritis versus those obtained from control dogs. Complement component 3 was strongly expressed in all (5/5) synovial membrane samples of dogs with stifle joint osteoarthritis and weakly expressed in 3 of 5 synovial membrane samples of dogs without stifle joint arthritis.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Findings suggested that the complement system and proteins involved in lipid and cholesterol metabolism may have a role in stifle joint osteoarthritis, CCL disease, or both.
Objective—To characterize systemic immune responses in Cytauxzoon felis-infected cats.
Sample—Blood and lung samples obtained from 27 cats.
Procedures—Cats were allocated into 4 groups: cats that died of cytauxzoonosis, acutely ill C felis-infected cats, healthy survivors of C felis infection, and healthy uninfected cats. Serum concentrations of tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-1 β were measured and serum proteins characterized. Blood smears were stained immunocytochemically and used to assess immunoglobulin deposition. Immunohistochemical expression of CD18 and tumor necrosis factor-α were compared in lung tissues obtained from cats that died and healthy uninfected cats. A real-time reverse-transcription PCR assay for CD18 expression was performed on selected blood samples from all groups.
Results—Concentrations of both cytokines were greater and serum albumin concentrations were significantly lower in cats that died of cytauxzoonosis, compared with results for all other groups. Erythrocytes from acutely ill cats and survivors of C felis infection had staining for plasmalemmal IgM, whereas erythrocytes from the other groups did not. Increased staining of C felis-infected monocytes and interstitial neutrophils for CD18 was detected. The real-time reverse-transcription PCR assay confirmed a relative increase in CD18 expression in cats that died of cytauxzoonosis and acutely ill cats, compared with expression in other groups. Immunostaining for TNF-α in lung samples confirmed a local proinflammatory response.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results indicated immunopathologic responses were greater in cats that died of C felis infection than in cats that survived C felis infection.