Objective—To determine outcome for dogs and cats
with diaphyseal fractures in which a plate-rod construct
was used for fracture repair.
Animals—35 dogs and 12 cats.
Procedures—Medical records and radiographs were
reviewed to obtain information concerning signalment,
fracture severity, construct design, time to radiographic
union, complications, and outcome. Clients
were contacted by telephone to obtain information on
complications, limb usage, and overall satisfaction
with the procedure.
Results—31 femoral, 9 humeral, and 7 tibial fractures
were assessed. Thirteen fractures consisted of 2 fragments,
22 consisted of 3 to 5 fragments, and 12 consisted
of > 5 fragments. Forty-six of 47 (98%) fractures
reached union. Mean ± SD times to radiographic
union were 7.5 ± 2.7 weeks for the dogs and 4.8 ±
1.3 weeks for the cats. There were 4 short-term,
minor complications and 15 long-term complications
(2 major and 13 minor). Owners of 21 of 30 dogs
(70%) and 9 of 12 cats reported that their animals had
normal limb function. Twenty-six of 28 dog owners
(93%) and 12 of 12 cat owners indicated that they
were satisfied with results of the procedure. As
surgery time increased, time to union also increased.
Time to union for fractures with > 5 fragments was
significantly shorter than time to union for fractures
with ≤ 5 fragments.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest
that plate-rod constructs can successfully be
used for repair of diaphyseal fractures of a wide range
of severity in dogs and cats. (J Am Vet Med Assoc
Objective—To evaluate 2 plate designs for pancarpal arthrodesis and their effects on load transfer to the respective bones as well as to develop a computational model with directed input from the biomechanical testing of the 2 constructs.
Sample—Both forelimbs from the cadaver of an adult castrated male Golden Retriever.
Procedures—CT imaging was performed on the forelimb pair. Each forelimb was subsequently instrumented with a hybrid dynamic compression plate or a castless pancarpal arthrodesis plate. Biomechanical testing was performed. The forelimbs were statically loaded in the elastic range and then cyclically loaded to failure. Finite element (FE) modeling was used to compare the 2 plate designs with respect to bone and implant stress distribution and magnitude when loaded.
Results—Cyclic loading to failure elicited failure patterns similar to those observed clinically. The mean ± SD error between computational and experimental strain was < 15% ± 13% at the maximum loads applied during static elastic loading. The highest bone stresses were at the distal extent of the metacarpal bones at the level of the screw holes with both plates; however, the compression plate resulted in slightly greater stresses than did the arthrodesis plate. Both models also revealed an increase in bone stress at the proximal screw position in the radius. The highest plate stress was identified at the level of the radiocarpal bone, and an increased screw stress (junction of screw head with shaft) was identified at both the most proximal and distal ends of the plates.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—The FE model successfully approximated the biomechanical characteristics of an ex vivo pancarpal plate construct for comparison of the effects of application of different plate designs.
Objective—To compare radiographic and arthroscopic
abnormalities in juvenile dogs with clinically apparent
Animals—52 dogs (70 hip joints) with clinical signs of hip
dysplasia scheduled to undergo triple pelvic osteotomy.
Procedure—A ventrodorsal radiographic projection of
the pelvis was evaluated by a radiologist unaware of
clinical and arthroscopic findings, and radiographic
osteoarthritic abnormalities were judged and scored
as absent (0), mild (1), moderate (2), or severe (3).
Arthroscopy was performed by a surgeon unaware of
clinical and radiographic findings, and arthroscopic
abnormalities were graded from 0 (normal) to 5
(exposed, eburnated subchondral bone).
Results—In 30 of the 70 (43%) hip joints, no radiographic
osteoarthritic abnormalities were seen.
Severe, full-thickness articular cartilage lesions
(grade 4) of the femoral head or acetabulum were
seen arthroscopically in 14 (20%) joints. Lesions ≥
grade 2 were seen in 60 (86%) joints. Partial tearing
of the ligament of the femoral head was present
in 57 (81%) joints, and complete rupture was
seen in 5 (7%). Radiographic abnormalities were
seen in 13 of the 14 (93%; 95% confidence interval,
66% to 99.8%) joints with grade 4 arthroscopic
abnormalities but in only 23 of the 46 (50%; 95%
confidence interval, 35% to 65%) joints with grade
2 or 3 arthroscopic abnormalities.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest
that radiography is not a sensitive method for identifying
moderate cartilage lesions in juvenile dogs with hip dysplasia.
If moderate cartilage lesions are an important
prognostic indicator for the success of triple pelvic
osteotomy, then methods other than radiography should
be used to detect these lesions. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2005;227:1091–1094)