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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To determine outcome for dogs and cats with diaphyseal fractures in which a plate-rod construct was used for fracture repair.

Design—Retrospective study.

Animals—35 dogs and 12 cats.

Procedures—Medical records and radiographs were reviewed to obtain information concerning signalment, fracture severity, construct design, time to radiographic union, complications, and outcome. Clients were contacted by telephone to obtain information on complications, limb usage, and overall satisfaction with the procedure.

Results—31 femoral, 9 humeral, and 7 tibial fractures were assessed. Thirteen fractures consisted of 2 fragments, 22 consisted of 3 to 5 fragments, and 12 consisted of > 5 fragments. Forty-six of 47 (98%) fractures reached union. Mean ± SD times to radiographic union were 7.5 ± 2.7 weeks for the dogs and 4.8 ± 1.3 weeks for the cats. There were 4 short-term, minor complications and 15 long-term complications (2 major and 13 minor). Owners of 21 of 30 dogs (70%) and 9 of 12 cats reported that their animals had normal limb function. Twenty-six of 28 dog owners (93%) and 12 of 12 cat owners indicated that they were satisfied with results of the procedure. As surgery time increased, time to union also increased. Time to union for fractures with > 5 fragments was significantly shorter than time to union for fractures with ≤ 5 fragments.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest that plate-rod constructs can successfully be used for repair of diaphyseal fractures of a wide range of severity in dogs and cats. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2003;223:330–335)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To compare radiographic and arthroscopic abnormalities in juvenile dogs with clinically apparent hip dysplasia.

Design—Case series.

Animals—52 dogs (70 hip joints) with clinical signs of hip dysplasia scheduled to undergo triple pelvic osteotomy.

Procedure—A ventrodorsal radiographic projection of the pelvis was evaluated by a radiologist unaware of clinical and arthroscopic findings, and radiographic osteoarthritic abnormalities were judged and scored as absent (0), mild (1), moderate (2), or severe (3). Arthroscopy was performed by a surgeon unaware of clinical and radiographic findings, and arthroscopic abnormalities were graded from 0 (normal) to 5 (exposed, eburnated subchondral bone).

Results—In 30 of the 70 (43%) hip joints, no radiographic osteoarthritic abnormalities were seen. Severe, full-thickness articular cartilage lesions (grade 4) of the femoral head or acetabulum were seen arthroscopically in 14 (20%) joints. Lesions ≥ grade 2 were seen in 60 (86%) joints. Partial tearing of the ligament of the femoral head was present in 57 (81%) joints, and complete rupture was seen in 5 (7%). Radiographic abnormalities were seen in 13 of the 14 (93%; 95% confidence interval, 66% to 99.8%) joints with grade 4 arthroscopic abnormalities but in only 23 of the 46 (50%; 95% confidence interval, 35% to 65%) joints with grade 2 or 3 arthroscopic abnormalities.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest that radiography is not a sensitive method for identifying moderate cartilage lesions in juvenile dogs with hip dysplasia. If moderate cartilage lesions are an important prognostic indicator for the success of triple pelvic osteotomy, then methods other than radiography should be used to detect these lesions. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2005;227:1091–1094)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate 2 plate designs for pancarpal arthrodesis and their effects on load transfer to the respective bones as well as to develop a computational model with directed input from the biomechanical testing of the 2 constructs.

Sample—Both forelimbs from the cadaver of an adult castrated male Golden Retriever.

Procedures—CT imaging was performed on the forelimb pair. Each forelimb was subsequently instrumented with a hybrid dynamic compression plate or a castless pancarpal arthrodesis plate. Biomechanical testing was performed. The forelimbs were statically loaded in the elastic range and then cyclically loaded to failure. Finite element (FE) modeling was used to compare the 2 plate designs with respect to bone and implant stress distribution and magnitude when loaded.

Results—Cyclic loading to failure elicited failure patterns similar to those observed clinically. The mean ± SD error between computational and experimental strain was < 15% ± 13% at the maximum loads applied during static elastic loading. The highest bone stresses were at the distal extent of the metacarpal bones at the level of the screw holes with both plates; however, the compression plate resulted in slightly greater stresses than did the arthrodesis plate. Both models also revealed an increase in bone stress at the proximal screw position in the radius. The highest plate stress was identified at the level of the radiocarpal bone, and an increased screw stress (junction of screw head with shaft) was identified at both the most proximal and distal ends of the plates.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—The FE model successfully approximated the biomechanical characteristics of an ex vivo pancarpal plate construct for comparison of the effects of application of different plate designs.

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research