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OBJECTIVE To use MRI and CT to compare the amount of tissue damage (soft tissue and bone) to the heads of goats after administration of a nonpenetrating or penetrating captive bolt.

ANIMALS Cadavers of twelve 1- to 5-year-old mixed-breed goats that had been euthanized with an overdose of pentobarbital as part of an unrelated study.

PROCEDURES Cadavers were randomly assigned to receive a nonpenetrating (n = 6) or penetrating (6) captive bolt. The head of 1 cadaver was imaged via CT and MRI. The muzzle of a device designed to administer either a penetrating or nonpenetrating captive bolt was then placed flush on the dorsal midline of each head at the level of the external occipital protuberance (poll) and aimed downward toward the cranialmost portion of the intermandibular space, and the assigned bolt was administered. Heads were removed, and CT and MRI of each head were performed. After imaging, each skull was transected along the sagittal plane to permit gross evaluation of central nervous tissue and obtain digital photographic images. In addition, 1 head that received a nonpenetrating captive bolt was further evaluated via blunt dissection and removal of adnexa from the external surface of the calvarium.

RESULTS MRI, CT, and dissection of skulls revealed severe skeletal and soft tissue damage after impact with the penetrating and nonpenetrating captive bolts.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE The nonpenetrating captive bolt appeared to cause damage similar to that of the penetrating captive bolt in the cranium and soft tissues of the head in caprine cadavers. This damage suggested that administration of a nonpenetrating captive bolt as described here may be an acceptable method of euthanasia in goats.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research



To determine whether therapeutic concentrations (> 0.5 to 1.0 μg/mL) of polymyxin B (PB) were achieved in the tarsocrural joint of horses when the drug was administered by IV regional limb perfusion (IV-RLP) via a saphenous vein at doses of 25, 50, and 300 mg and to describe any adverse systemic or local effects associated with such administration.


9 healthy adult horses.


In the first of 2 experiments, 6 horses each received 25 and 50 mg of PB by IV-RLP via a saphenous vein with at least 2 weeks between treatments. For each treatment, a tourniquet was placed at the midmetatarsus and another was placed midway between the stifle joint and tarsus. Both tourniquets were removed 30 minutes after the assigned dose was administered. Blood and tarsocrural joint fluid samples were collected for determination of PB concentration before and at predetermined times after drug administration. In experiment 2, 4 horses were administered 300 mg of PB by IV-RLP in 1 randomly selected pelvic limb in a manner identical to that used in experiment 1.


For all 3 doses, the mean synovial fluid PB concentration was > 10 times the therapeutic concentration and below the level of quantification at 30 and 1,440 minutes after drug administration, respectively. No adverse systemic or local effects were observed following PB administration.


Results suggested that IV-RLP of PB might be a viable alternative for treatment of horses with synovial infections caused by gram-negative bacteria.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research


Objective—To evaluate antinociceptive and selected effects associated with IM administration of xylazine hydrochloride in combination with tiletamine-zolazepam in llamas.

Animals—8 adult male llamas.

Procedures—Each llama received tiletamine-zolazepam (2 mg/kg) combined with either xylazine (0.1, 0.2, or 0.4 mg/kg) or saline (0.9% NaCl) solution IM (treatments designated as TZ-Xy0.1, TZ-Xy0.2, TZ-Xy0.4, and TZ-Sal, respectively) at 1-week intervals. Selected cardiorespiratory variables were assessed during lateral recumbency and anesthesia, and recovery characteristics were recorded. Duration of antinociception was evaluated by clamping a claw every 5 minutes.

Results—Interval between treatment administration and lateral recumbency for TZ-Xy0.4 was shorter than that for TZ-Xy0.1 or TZ-Sal. Mean ± SEM duration of antinociception was longer for TZ-Xy0.4 (51.3 ± 7. 0 minutes), compared with findings for TZ-Xy0.2 (31.9 ± 6.0 minutes), TZ-Xy0.1 (8.1 ± 4.0 minutes), and TZ-Sal (0.6 ± 0.6 minutes). Interval between treatment administration and standing was longer for TZ-Xy0.4 (112 ± 9 minutes) than it was for TZ-Xy0.2 (77 ± 9 minutes) or TZ-Sal (68 ± 9 minutes). Mean heart and respiratory rates during the first 30 minutes for TZ-Sal exceeded values for the other treatments. Administration of TZ-Xy0.2 and TZ-Xy0.4 resulted in Pao 2 < 60 mm Hg at 5 minutes after llamas attained lateral recumbency, and values differed from TZ-Sal findings at 5, 10, and 15 minutes; Paco 2 was greater for TZ-Xy0.2 and TZ-Xy0.4 than for TZ-Sal at 5, 10, 15, and 20 minutes.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Xylazine (0.2 and 0.4 mg/kg) increased the duration of antinociception in llamas anesthetized with tiletamine-zolazepam.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association


OBJECTIVE To determine the effects of stacked wedge pads and chains applied to the forefeet of Tennessee Walking Horses on behavioral and biochemical indicators of pain, stress, and inflamation.

ANIMALS 20 Tennessee Walking Horses.

PROCEDURES Horses were randomly assigned to 2 treatment groups: keg shoes (control; n = 10) or stacked wedge pads and exercise with chains (10). Ten days before treatment application, an accelerometer was attached at the left metatarsus of each horse to record daily activity. Horses were exercised for 20 minutes daily, beginning on day -7. On day 0, exercise ceased, the forefeet were trimmed, and the assigned treatment was applied. From days 1 through 5, horses were exercised as before. Blood samples for measurement of plasma cortisol, substance P, and fibrinogen concentrations were collected on days -5, 1, and 5 before and after exercise and every 30 minutes thereafter for 6 hours.

RESULTS No significant differences in plasma concentrations of cortisol, substance P, and fibrinogen were detected between groups. Although lying behaviors changed after shoes were applied, these behaviors did not differ significantly between groups. Shoeing appeared to have altered behavior to a greater extent than did the type of treatment applied.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Application of stacked wedge pads and chains to the forefeet of horses for a 5-day period as performed in this study evoked no acute or subacute stress or nociceptive response as measured. Although these findings should not be extrapolated to the long-term use of such devices in Tennessee Walking Horses performing the running walk, the data should be considered when making evidence-based decisions relating to animal welfare and the use of stacked wedge pads and chains.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research