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  • Author or Editor: Brian K. Sidaway x
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Objective—To objectively evaluate the effect of transecting the tendon of the biceps brachii muscle (BBT), tendon of the infraspinatus muscle (IFS), or medial glenohumeral ligament (MGHL) on shoulder joint stability in canine cadavers.

Sample Population—81 forelimbs from mature dogs.

Procedure—Cadaver forelimbs were placed in a testing frame and axially preloaded with 4 kg of weight. Shoulder joint stability was tested in neutral joint position, flexion, and extension before and after transection of the BBT (n = 37), IFS (37), or MGHL (7). Humeral translation relative to the glenoid was induced by applying a 3-kg load in each of 3 directions (cranial, lateral, and medial) and quantitatively measured by use of an electromagnetic motion tracking system. Peak translational data were compared in each joint position before and after transection of the BBT, IFS, or MGHL.

Results—When tested in neutral position, the cranial, lateral, and medial translation of the humerus was significantly increased after BBT transection. In the flexed position, translation of the humerus in the cranial and lateral directions was significantly increased after BBT transection. In the extended position, the medial translation of the humerus was significantly increased after BBT transection. Complete medial luxation of all humeral heads occurred following transection of the MGHL.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—The BBT contributes to passive shoulder joint stability in dogs, particularly in the neutral and flexed positions. It also provides medial stability during shoulder joint extension. Complete luxation of the joint occurs when the MGHL is transected. (Am J Vet Res 2004;65:1216–1222)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research


Objective—To determine outcome of open toggle rod stabilization in dogs with luxation of the hip joint.

Design—Retrospective case series.

Animals—62 dogs.

Procedures—Information on signalment, surgical procedure, and postoperative care was obtained from the medical records. A questionnaire was sent to all owners to solicit follow-up information.

Results—The distribution for time between luxation and surgery was bimodal, with 24 (39%) dogs examined ≤ 2 days after injury and 23 (37%) examined > 7 days after injury. Postoperative complications developed in 16 of the 62 (26%) dogs, with complications developing within 1 week after surgery in 10 of the 16. The most common complication was reluxation, which occurred in 7 dogs. Dogs in which surgery time was < 2 hours were significantly less likely to have a reluxation (2/40 [5%]) than were dogs in which surgery time was ≥ 2 hours (5/22 [23%]). When asked to rate current limb function (0 = no lameness and 5 = non–weightbearing lame) a minimum of 6 months after surgery, 23 of 27 (85%) owners indicated a score of 0 or 1.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results of the present study suggest that toggle rod stabilization is an effective treatment for hip joint luxation in dogs. However, complications, particularly reluxation, were common.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association