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Objective—To evaluate the effects of interleukin (IL)-1β on proteoglycan metabolism in equine cartilage explants when cultured in the presence of synoviocytes.

Sample Population—Samples of cartilage and synovium collected from the femoropatellar joints of three 2- to 3-year-old horses.

Procedures—3 experimental groups were established: cartilage explants only, synoviocytes only, and cartilage explants-synoviocytes in coculture. In each group, samples were cultured with or without IL-1β (10 ng/mL) for 96 hours. Glycosaminoglycan (GAG) content of cartilage and medium samples was measured by use of a spectrophotometric assay; RNA was isolated from synoviocytes and cartilage and analyzed for expression of matrix metalloproteinases (MMP)-3 and -13 (cartilage and synoviocytes), aggrecan (cartilage), collagen type IIB (cartilage), and 18S as a control (cartilage and synoviocytes) by use of quantitative PCR assays. Cartilage matrix metachromasia was assessed histochemically.

Results—IL-1β–induced GAG loss from cartilage was significantly less in cocultures than in cartilage-only cultures. Cartilage aggrecan gene expression was also significantly less downregulated and synoviocyte MMP-3 expression was less upregulated by IL-1β in cocultures, compared with cartilage- and synoviocyteonly cultures. Histochemical findings supported the molecular and biochemical results and revealed maintenance of matrix metachromasia in cocultured cartilage treated with IL-1β.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest that synoviocytes secrete 1 or more mediators that preferentially protect matrix GAG metabolism from the degradative effects of IL-1β. Further studies involving proteomic and microarray approaches in similar coculture systems may elucidate novel therapeutic targets for the treatment of osteoarthritis.

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research


Objective—To compare values of blood parameters in rockfish obtained by use of a point-of-care portable blood analyzer with values determined by a veterinary diagnostic laboratory, calculate reference ranges for various blood parameters in black rockfish, and compare values of blood parameters in clinically normal fish with those of fish with clinical abnormalities.

Design—Prospective study.

Animals—41 captive adult black rockfish (Sebastes melanops) and 4 captive adult blue rockfish (Sebastes mystinus).

Procedure—Rockfish were anesthetized with tricaine methanesulfonate for collection of blood samples. Heparinized blood samples were immediately analyzed with a point-of-care analyzer. Blood sodium, potassium, chloride, urea nitrogen, and glucose concentrations; Hct; pH; partial pressure of carbon dioxide; total carbon dioxide concentration; bicarbonate concentration; base excess; and hemoglobin concentration were determined. A microhematocrit technique was used to determine PCV, and a refractometer was used to estimate total plasma protein concentration. Paired heparinized blood samples were transported to a veterinary diagnostic laboratory for analyses.

Results—Data obtained with the point-of-care analyzer were reproducible; however, values for most blood parameters were significantly different from those obtained by the veterinary diagnostic laboratory. Fish with poor body condition had several blood parameter values that were lower than corresponding values in clinically normal fish.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Point-of-care blood analyses may prove useful in rockfish. Point-of-care data for a large number of clinically normal fish must be obtained for reference ranges to be calculated, and further assessments of clinically abnormal fish are necessary to determine the relevance of the data. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2005;226:255–265)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association



To compare intraocular pressures (IOPs) estimated by rebound and applanation tonometry for dogs with lens instability.


66 dogs.


Medical records of dogs examined between September 2012 and July 2018 were reviewed for diagnoses of anterior (ALL) or posterior (PLL) lens luxation or lens subluxation.


Estimates of IOP obtained with rebound and applanation tonometry significantly differed from each other for all types of lens instability considered collectively (mean ± SE difference between tonometric readings, 8.1 ± 1.3 mm Hg) and specific types of lens instability considered individually (mean ± SE difference between tonometric readings: ALL, 12.8 ± 2.5 mm Hg; PLL, 5.9 ± 1.7 mm Hg; subluxation, 2.8 ± 0.8 mm Hg). Median (range) differences between rebound and applanation tonometer readings for dogs with ALL was 5 mm Hg (–9 to 76 mm Hg), with PLL was 3 mm Hg (–1 to 19 mm Hg), and with lens subluxation was 3 mm Hg (–9 to 18 mm Hg). In eyes with ALL, rebound tonometer readings exceeded applanation tonometer readings on 44 of 60 (73%) occasions.


Rebound tonometry yielded higher estimates of IOP than did applanation tonometry in eyes with ALL and with all types of lens luxation considered collectively. Estimates of IOP in eyes with lens instability should ideally be obtained with both rebound and applanation tonometers. Veterinarians with only one type of tonometer should interpret results for dogs with lens instability concurrent with physical examination findings.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association