Case Description—2 horses were examined for chronic nasal discharge secondary to unilateral guttural pouch mycosis.
Clinical Findings—Initial endoscopic examination of both horses confirmed the presence of a fungal plaque on the dorsomedial aspect of the medial compartment of the guttural pouch (auditory tube diverticulum) involving the internal carotid artery (ICA). No signs of hemorrhage or neurologic deficits were present at admission.
Treatment and Outcome—Transarterial stainless steel coil embolization of the affected ICA was performed under general anesthesia, with fluoroscopic guidance. During treatment, an aberrant branch of the ICA, or a proposed bifid ICA, that anastomosed with the caudal cerebellar artery was identified. Occlusion of the distal (noncardiac) side of the aberrant branch was performed in both horses because of potential mycotic involvement at that level. Following treatment, resolution of the mycotic infection was observed in both horses; however, 1 horse developed neurologic signs compatible with unilateral caudal cerebellar artery ischemia on recovery from anesthesia; these signs resolved over the following 2 months.
Clinical Relevance—Findings highlighted variability of the anatomy of the ICA in 2 horses that was identified during treatment for guttural pouch mycosis and identified caudal cerebellar artery infarction as a potential complication of treatment. Because of the size and pathway of both arterial branches, we suggest that the term bifurcation of the ICA is more appropriate than aberrant branching, as has been previously described in the literature. The information in this report may be of value to clinicians performing procedures involving the vasculature of the head and neck in horses.
Objective—To identify Doppler echocardiographic (DE) variables that correlate with left ventricular filling pressure (LVFP).
Animals—7 healthy dogs (1 to 3 years old).
Procedures—Dogs were anesthetized and instrumented to measure left atrial pressure (LAP), left ventricular pressures, and cardiac output. Nine DE variables of LVFP derived from diastolic time intervals, transmitral and pulmonary venous flow, and tissue Doppler images were measured over a range of hemodynamic states induced by volume loading and right atrial pacing. Associations between simultaneous invasive measures of LVFP and DE measures of LVFP were determined by use of regression analysis. Receiver operating characteristic analysis was used to predict increases in mean LAP on the basis of DE variables.
Results—Mean LAP was correlated with several DE variables: the ratio between peak velocity during early diastolic transmitral flow and left ventricular isovolumic relaxation time (peak E:IVRT) during sinus rhythm and during right atrial pacing, IVRT, the ratio between late diastolic transmitral flow velocity and pulmonary venous flow duration, and the interval between onset of early diastolic mitral annulus motion and onset of early diastolic transmitral flow. Cutoff values of 2.20 and 2.17, for peak E:IVRT in dogs with sinus rhythm and atrial pacing predicted increases in mean LAP (≥ 15 mm Hg) with sensitivities of 90% and 100% and specificities of 92% and 100%, respectively.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Doppler echocardiography can be used to predict an increase in LVFP in healthy anesthetized dogs subjected to volume loading.
Objective—To compare 5 methods of preparation of
RNA from feline urine samples for use in a feline calicivirus
(FCV), p30 gene-based, real-time reverse-transcriptase
polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay.
Sample Population—Urine and blood samples from
6 specific-pathogen-free cats.
Procedures—Aliquots of each urine sample (unmodified,
centrifuged, or mixed with whole or hemolyzed
blood) were spiked with FCV and serially diluted in
urine. Serial dilutions of FCV in tissue culture medium
were used as positive controls. Viral RNA was prepared
via dilution and thermal inactivation (DT
method), polyethylene glycol precipitation (PEG
method), isolation with oligo(dT)25-coated magnetic
beads (dTMB method), or extraction by use of 2 silica
gel–based columns (RN or QA method). Lower detection
limits and mean RT-PCR threshold cycle (Ct) values
associated with each RNA preparation method
and sample type were compared.
Results—Because DT-prepared samples yielded negative
results via RT-PCR assay, this method was not evaluated.
Lower detection limits (TCID50/sample) for the
assay in urine were 1,950, 104, 11, and 7 for PEG-,
dTMB-, RN-, and QA-prepared samples, respectively. For
RN and QA preparations, Ct values were similar and significantly
lower than those for dTMB and PEG preparations.
Overall, urine modifications did not affect FCV RNA
detection in dTMB-, QA-, and RN-prepared samples.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Of the methods
evaluated, the RN and QA methods of RNA
preparation were most appropriate for the FCV RTPCR
assay. An RT-PCR assay optimized for detection
of FCV in feline urine may aid investigations of FCVinduced
urinary tract diseases in cats. (Am J Vet Res
Case Description—4 dogs with acquired pulmonary artery stenosis (PAS) were examined for various clinical signs. One was a mixed-breed dog with congenital valvular PAS that subsequently developed peripheral PAS, one was a Golden Retriever with pulmonary valve fibrosarcoma, one was a Pembroke Welsh Corgi in which the left pulmonary artery had inadvertently been ligated during surgery for correction of patent ductus arteriosus, and one was a Boston Terrier with a heart-base mass compressing the pulmonary arteries.
Clinical Findings—All 4 dogs were evaluated with 2-dimensional and Doppler echocardiography to characterize the nature and severity of the stenoses; other diagnostic tests were also performed.
Treatment and Outcome—The mixed-breed dog with valvular and peripheral PAS was euthanized, surgical resection of the pulmonic valve mass was performed in the Golden Retriever, corrective surgery was performed on the Pembroke Welsh Corgi with left pulmonary artery ligation, and the Boston Terrier with the heart-base mass was managed medically.
Clinical Relevance—Acquired PAS in dogs may manifest as a clinically silent heart murmur, syncope, or right-sided heart failure. The diagnosis is made on the basis of imaging findings, particularly results of 2-dimensional and Doppler echocardiography. Treatment may include surgical, interventional, or medical modalities and is targeted at resolving the inciting cause.
Case Description—A 2.96-kg (6.5-lb) 9-month-old spayed female domestic longhair cat was admitted for removal of a tracheal foreign body.
Clinical Findings—The cat had moderate respiratory distress but otherwise appeared to be healthy. Thoracic radiography revealed a foreign body in the trachea.
Treatment and Outcome—The cat was anesthetized and endoscopy of the trachea was performed in an attempt to retrieve the foreign body. Endoscopic removal was unsuccessful because of the shape and smooth texture of the foreign body. Surgical removal of the foreign body was not considered ideal because of its location and the risks associated with tracheotomy. Fluoroscopic-guided placement of an over-the-wire balloon catheter caudal to the foreign body was followed by inflation of the balloon and gradual traction in an orad direction, which resulted in successful removal of the foreign body (identified as a piece of landscaping gravel). The cat required supplemental oxygen and supportive care following removal of the foreign body.
Clinical Relevance—A fluoroscopic technique was used as a minimally invasive alternative to endoscopy or open-chest surgery for removal of a foreign body from the trachea of a cat. Use of this technique allowed uninterrupted ventilation of the cat throughout the procedure. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2010;237:689-694)