Objective—To compare the performance of 3 point-of-care glucose meters in adult and juvenile alpacas with that of a laboratory-based analyzer.
Animals—35 adult alpacas and 21 juvenile alpacas.
Procedures—Whole blood samples obtained via jugular venipuncture were tested with all 3 point-of-care glucose meters; plasma samples were also tested with 1 of those meters. Glucose concentrations determined by use of the point-of-care meters were compared with results from the laboratory-based analyzer.
Results—Plasma glucose concentrations determined by use of the laboratory-based analyzer ranged from 36 to 693 mg/dL. Over the entire range of glucose concentrations tested, the Lin concordance correlation coefficient (agreement) was significant and excellent for all comparisons. Concordance decreased for 1 glucometer when testing whole blood samples over a narrower range of glucose concentrations (50 to 200 mg/dL). Bias was typically small (< 10 mg/dL) for 3 of the 4 comparisons but considerable for 1 meter with the use of whole blood. The limits of agreement were wide for all comparisons over the entire range of glucose concentrations tested but decreased to within acceptable limits when the narrower glucose range (50 to 200 mg/dL) was analyzed for 3 of the comparisons. For samples with a PCV < 25%, bias and the limits of agreement were greater for one of the meters tested.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Discrepancies between point-of-care glucose meters and reference techniques can be considerable in alpacas, emphasizing the importance of assessing individual meter performance in a target population.
Case Description—6 horses were determined to have torsion of a liver lobe at 4 referral institutions over a 21-year period.
Clinical Findings—Clinical findings were nonspecific but often included signs of marked inflammation. Two of the 6 horses were examined because of colic, and 2 were assessed because of peritonitis that failed to respond to treatment; the remaining 2 horses were examined because of nonspecific clinical signs that included inappetence, lethargy, and weight loss. The results of laboratory tests were widely variable, and values for liver enzyme activities were typically within reference limits or only mildly increased. Most affected horses had markedly increased peritoneal nucleated cell counts.
Treatment and Outcome—Exploratory laparotomy and resection of the affected liver lobe was performed in 5 horses. Three of those patients survived to discharge.
Clinical Relevance—Results suggested that diagnosis of liver lobe torsion in horses may be difficult because clinical signs and results of laboratory testing are nonspecific and variable. Most affected horses had markedly abnormal peritoneal fluid. The prognosis for hepatic lobe torsion can be good, and early surgical correction is expected to improve outcome.
Objective—To compare signalment of horses with cervical vertebral malformation-malarticulation (CVM) with that of control horses and to describe results of clinical examination, diagnostic imaging and necropsy findings, and reported outcome in horses with CVM.
Design—Retrospective case-control study.
Animals—270 horses with CVM and 608 control horses admitted to 6 veterinary hospitals from 1992 through 2007.
Procedures—Medical records of participating hospitals were reviewed to identify horses with CVM (ie, case horses) and contemporaneous control (non-CVM-affected) horses that were admitted for treatment. Signalment was compared between case horses and control horses. Results of clinical examination, laboratory and diagnostic imaging findings, necropsy results, and outcome were assessed for horses with CVM.
Results—Case horses were younger (median age, 2 years) than were control horses (median age, 7 years). Thoroughbreds, warmbloods, and Tennessee Walking Horses were overrepresented in the CVM group. Gait asymmetry and cervical hyperesthesia were frequently detected in horses with CVM. Vertebral canal stenosis and articular process osteophytosis were commonly observed at necropsy; agreement between the results of radiographic or myelographic analysis and detection of lesions at necropsy was 65% to 71% and 67% to 78%, respectively. Of 263 horses with CVM for which outcome was recorded, 1 died and 172 (65.4%) were euthanatized.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Odds of a diagnosis of CVM were greater in young horses and horses of specific breeds. Detection of gait asymmetry and cervical hyperesthesia were frequently reported in association with CVM. Accurate diagnosis of lesions associated with CVM by use of radiography and myelography can be challenging. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2010;237:812-822)