A 5-year-old female alpaca was evaluated at the University of Georgia Veterinary Medical Teaching Hospital because of worsening respiratory difficulty of approximately 36 hours' duration. The alpaca had been treated with flunixin meglumine, diphenhydramine, and an antimicrobial prior to referral with no response. The alpaca was in the fourth month of gestation and had no history of previous medical problems. All other alpacas in the herd were reportedly healthy.
On initial evaluation, the alpaca was in respiratory distress with pronounced inspiratory stridor. An emergency temporary tracheostomy was performed, after which the respiratory effort and rate improved markedly. Thereafter, the
A 7-year-old Aberdeen-Angus cow in its fourth month of pregnancy was evaluated at the University of Georgia Veterinary Teaching Hospital because of inappetence and bilateral abdominal distension of 3 days' duration. The cow had developed a vaginal discharge 6 days prior to the evaluation and was treated with penicillin (20,000 U/kg [9,091 U/lb], IM, q 12 h) and flunixin meglumine (1.1 mg/kg [0.5 mg/lb], IM, q 24 h).
Clinical and Gross Findings
At admission to the hospital, the cow was in good body condition (body condition score, 6/9), had signs of depression, and was markedly tachypneic (100 breaths/min). The
Objective—To compare the performance of 3 point-of-care glucose meters in adult and juvenile alpacas with that of a laboratory-based analyzer.
Animals—35 adult alpacas and 21 juvenile alpacas.
Procedures—Whole blood samples obtained via jugular venipuncture were tested with all 3 point-of-care glucose meters; plasma samples were also tested with 1 of those meters. Glucose concentrations determined by use of the point-of-care meters were compared with results from the laboratory-based analyzer.
Results—Plasma glucose concentrations determined by use of the laboratory-based analyzer ranged from 36 to 693 mg/dL. Over the entire range of glucose concentrations tested, the Lin concordance correlation coefficient (agreement) was significant and excellent for all comparisons. Concordance decreased for 1 glucometer when testing whole blood samples over a narrower range of glucose concentrations (50 to 200 mg/dL). Bias was typically small (< 10 mg/dL) for 3 of the 4 comparisons but considerable for 1 meter with the use of whole blood. The limits of agreement were wide for all comparisons over the entire range of glucose concentrations tested but decreased to within acceptable limits when the narrower glucose range (50 to 200 mg/dL) was analyzed for 3 of the comparisons. For samples with a PCV < 25%, bias and the limits of agreement were greater for one of the meters tested.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Discrepancies between point-of-care glucose meters and reference techniques can be considerable in alpacas, emphasizing the importance of assessing individual meter performance in a target population.
A 3-year-old approximately 450-kg (990-lb) Quarter Horse gelding was referred to the University of Georgia's Large Animal Teaching Hospital because of fever, signs of depression, inappetence, extensive alopecia, and crusting of the skin of 1 month's duration. One month prior to referral, crusts and marked edema of the lower portions of the horse's limbs were evident. Cytologic examination of the moist underside of crusts taken from the skin of the lower aspects of the limbs performed at that time revealed infection with Dermatophilus congolensis. Appropriate systemic and topical treatments with antimicrobials, along with administration of NSAIDs, did
A 3-year-old Boer goat doe was evaluated at the University of Georgia Large Animal Teaching Hospital because of chronic, progressive inspiratory dyspnea and bilateral nasal discharge. The goat had developed a thick, seromucoid bilateral nasal discharge and an increased respiratory effort approximately 4.5 months prior to evaluation. Discharge was more severe from the left nasal passage. The goat had been treated with several courses of penicillin G procaine, dexamethasone, and flunixin meglumine (doses not reported) with minimal improvement. Other goats in the herd were all reportedly healthy.
On physical examination, the goat was quiet but alert, responsive, and in
Case Description—6 horses were determined to have torsion of a liver lobe at 4 referral institutions over a 21-year period.
Clinical Findings—Clinical findings were nonspecific but often included signs of marked inflammation. Two of the 6 horses were examined because of colic, and 2 were assessed because of peritonitis that failed to respond to treatment; the remaining 2 horses were examined because of nonspecific clinical signs that included inappetence, lethargy, and weight loss. The results of laboratory tests were widely variable, and values for liver enzyme activities were typically within reference limits or only mildly increased. Most affected horses had markedly increased peritoneal nucleated cell counts.
Treatment and Outcome—Exploratory laparotomy and resection of the affected liver lobe was performed in 5 horses. Three of those patients survived to discharge.
Clinical Relevance—Results suggested that diagnosis of liver lobe torsion in horses may be difficult because clinical signs and results of laboratory testing are nonspecific and variable. Most affected horses had markedly abnormal peritoneal fluid. The prognosis for hepatic lobe torsion can be good, and early surgical correction is expected to improve outcome.