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  • Author or Editor: Brett G. Darrow x
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OBJECTIVE To evaluate mechanical properties of pigeon (Columba livia) cadaver intact humeri versus ostectomized humeri stabilized with a locking or nonlocking plate.

SAMPLE 30 humeri from pigeon cadavers.

PROCEDURES Specimens were allocated into 3 groups and tested in bending and torsion. Results for intact pigeon humeri were compared with results for ostectomized humeri repaired with a titanium 1.6-mm screw locking plate or a stainless steel 1.5-mm dynamic compression plate; the ostectomized humeri mimicked a fracture in a thin cortical bone. Locking plates were secured with locking screws (2 bicortical and 4 monocortical), and nonlocking plates were secured with bicortical nonlocking screws. Constructs were cyclically tested nondestructively in 4-point bending and then tested to failure in bending. A second set of constructs were cyclically tested non-destructively and then to failure in torsion. Stiffness, strength, and strain energy of each construct were compared.

RESULTS Intact specimens were stiffer and stronger than the repair groups for all testing methods, except for nonlocking constructs, which were significantly stiffer than intact specimens under cyclic bending. Intact bones had significantly higher strain energies than locking plates in both bending and torsion. Locking and nonlocking plates were of equal strength and strain energy, but not stiffness, in bending and were of equal strength, stiffness, and strain energy in torsion.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results for this study suggested that increased torsional strength may be needed before bone plate repair can be considered as the sole fixation method for avian species.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research



To describe short-term outcomes of dogs and cats undergoing surgery for traumatic bile peritonitis.


13 dogs and 4 cats.


Multi-institutional, retrospective study. Medical records from 6 institutions were reviewed for cases of traumatic bile peritonitis between 2006 and 2022. Clinical presentation, additional injuries, surgical treatment, and outcome were recorded.


Trauma occurred a median of 2 (range, 1 to 22) and 4 (range, 1 to 22) days prior to presentation in dogs and cats, respectively. Total bilirubin was increased in 11 of 13 dogs and 2 of 4 cats. Rupture occurred at the common bile duct (CBD) in 10 dogs and 1 cat, gallbladder in 3 dogs, cystic duct in 2 cats, and hepatic duct in 1 dog and 1 cat. The most common surgeries were cholecystoduodenostomy and CBD repair in dogs and cholecystectomy in cats. Eleven of 13 dogs and all cats survived to hospital discharge (88.2% overall survival). Median follow-up in surviving dogs and cats was 35 days (range, 14 to 401) and 30 days (range, 14 to 90), respectively. One dog that underwent cholecystectomy experienced recurrent bile peritonitis 20 days postoperatively. Short-term survival following surgical treatment of traumatic bile peritonitis was excellent and recurrence appears uncommon. The most frequent site of rupture was the CBD in dogs and the cystic duct in cats.


Measurement of peritoneal bilirubin should be considered in dogs and cats with peritoneal effusion following trauma. Surgeons should be prepared to identify and address ruptures in locations other than the gallbladder.

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association